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The Renaissance ( ) “Rebirth” of human creativity

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Presentation on theme: "The Renaissance ( ) “Rebirth” of human creativity"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Renaissance (1450-1600) “Rebirth” of human creativity
Famous people Christopher Columbus (1492) Ferdinand Magellan ( ) Leonardo da Vinci ( ) dominant intellectual movement – humanism focus on human life and accomplishments study of Greek and Latin impact on art

2 The Renaissance (1450-1600) Education
Catholic church far less powerful Protestant Reformation – Martin Luther ( ) church did not monopolize learning education viewed as status symbol paid tutors for upper middle class and aristocracy ca – invention of printing with moveable type

3 Music and Renaissance Society
Greater circulation of music printing press larger number of composers and performers Musical training expected in education Growth of church choirs church remains an important patron of music Shift to musical activities in royal courts Composers seek recognition

4 Characteristics of Renaissance Music
Predominance of vocal music interest in lyrics use of word painting Chiefly polyphonic in texture usually 4-6 vocal parts of equal interest homophonic texture also used fuller / larger pitch range used more attention to harmonic effect “golden age” of a cappella choral music Gentle flowing rhythms / scalar melodic patterns

5 Sacred Music in the Renaissance
Renaissance motet polyphonic choral work set to sacred Latin text other than the mass ordinary Josquin Desprez ( , Flemish) Background born in Hainaut (modern Belgium) worked most of his life in Italy court composer Papal choir in Rome worked for Louis XII of France

6 Sacred Music in the Renaissance
Listening example Ave Maria … virgo serena (1502) – Josquin Desprez 4-voice motet Latin prayer to the Virgin Mary points of imitation polyphonic with texture changes word painting – “new joy” w/ rhythmic animation Renaissance mass polyphonic choral setting of the mass ordinary Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei

7 Sacred Music in the Renaissance
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (ca , Italy) Background devoted himself to Catholic church music career centered in Rome / held many important music positions became music director at St. Peter’s cathedral wrote 104 masses / 450+ other sacred works important figure in the Counter-Reformation, including the Council of Trent ( )

8 Sacred Music in the Renaissance
Pope Marcellus Mass ( ) - Palestrina reflects Council of Trent’s desire for clear text projection, even as a polyphonic piece dedicated to Pope Marcellus II written for 6 voices (sop., alto, 2 ten., 2 bass) Kyrie constant imitation fuller sound due to more parts continuous flowing rhythm / sustained chords at cadences

9 Secular Music in the Renaissance
Vocal Music increasingly popular / important leisure activity written for groups of soloists or solo voice with one or more accompanying instruments two types madrigal ballett (fa-la)

10 Secular Music in the Renaissance
Madrigal characteristics a piece for several solo voices set to a short poem - usually about love combines polyphonic and homophonic textures strong use of word painting and unusual harmonies History of the Madrigal originated in Italy ca. 1520 explosion of Italian poetry / thousands of madrigals collection of Italian madrigals published in England

11 Secular Music in the Renaissance
As Vesta Was Descending (1601) Thomas Weelkes (ca ) - English organist and church composer in The Triumphes of Oriana - collection of madrigals honoring Queen Elizabeth I (several composers) word painting - “descending”, “ascending”, “two by two”, etc.

12 Secular Music in the Renaissance
Ballett (Fa-La) dance-like song for several solo voices mostly homophonic with melody in top voice same music for each stanza of poem / refrain of “fa, la, la …” Now Is the Month of Maying (1595) Thomas Morley ( ) - English composer binary form: aa bb

13 Secular Music in the Renaissance
Instrumental Music accompanied voices or played music intended to be sung harpsichord, organ, lute music written for instruments more common mostly to accompany dancing performed in pairs (i.e. pavane and galliard) use of loud vs. soft instruments families of instruments played together numbers of players depend on circumstances

14 Secular Music in the Renaissance
Ricercar in the Twelfth Mode Andrea Gabrieli (ca ) organist at St. Mark’s Cathedral in Venice ( ) written for 4 instruments (SATB) polyphonic composition employing imitation form: A B CC A The Most Sacred Queene Elizabeth, Her Galliard John Dowland ( ) - lutenist and composer written for lute lively court dance in triple meter / after pavane binary form: A A’ B B’

15 The Venitian School 16th century - Venice becomes center of vocal and instrumental music focal point - St. Mark’s Cathedral employed 20 instrumentalists / 30 singers Venitian School - organists/ music directors at St. Mark’s Adrian Willaert Andrea Gabrieli Giovanni Gabrieli (Andrea’s nephew) two choir lofts with own organ some music written for voices with separate instrument parts tendency toward homophonic texture

16 The Venitian School Giovanni Gabrieli (ca.1555-1612)
studied with uncle Andrea / organist at St. Mark’s ( ) Plaudite (1597) polychoral motet 12 vocal parts divided into 3 choirs (low, middle, high) instrument parts stereophonic in nature

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