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Chapter 2: Sacred Music Journal Entry #7 What does a cappella music offer the listener that instrumental music doesn’t? Turn in entries #5, #6 and #7 when.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Sacred Music Journal Entry #7 What does a cappella music offer the listener that instrumental music doesn’t? Turn in entries #5, #6 and #7 when."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2: Sacred Music Journal Entry #7 What does a cappella music offer the listener that instrumental music doesn’t? Turn in entries #5, #6 and #7 when done.

2 CHARACTERISTICS, continued from yesterday… What SHMRFT traits can you fill in so far? –Text Painting? –No extreme dynamic contrast? –Little tone color contrast? –Little rhythmic contrast?

3 CHARACTERISTICS, cont… Texture –Polyphonic 4, 5, or 6 voices, nearly equal melodic interest –Imitation Each voice presents the same melodic idea in turn (as in a round) –Some homophonic texture is used, especially in light music, dances

4 CHARACTERISTICS, cont… –Fuller sound Bass register used for first time, increasing number of octaves heard Composers began to think in chords, in addition to individual melodic lines –In Middle Ages, entire melody lines thought up one at a time and then combined. –In Renaissance, melodies were thought up in relation to how they accompany each other –Mild, relaxed Lots of stable, consonant chords, many triads Very little dissonance

5 CHARACTERISTICS, cont… –“Golden Age” of a cappella choral music Little instrumental accompaniment 2 Main uses for instruments 1. To duplicate vocal lines to reinforce the sound 2. Play the part of a missing singer Now what can you add to your SHMRFT traits?

6 CHARACTERISTICS, cont… Rhythm –Gentle flow, not sharply defined beat Each melodic line held great rhythmic independence Made it challenging to sing – each singer had to be independently strong

7 CHARACTERISTICS, cont… Melody –Melodies generally easy to sing Moves stepwise, few large leaps And your SHMRFT traits now?

8 LISTENING TO RENAISSANCE Sicut Cervus –Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

9 Chapter 2: Sacred Music 2 Main Forms 1. Motet 2. Mass

10 Motet Mass Style: polyphonic choral works Sacred Text Shorter Set to sacred Latin text other than the ordinary of the mass Longer Set to 5 sections: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei

11 Chapter 2, cont… Josquin Desprez ( ) –Flemish (from what is now Belgium) –Spent much of life in Italy Served dukes’ private chapels, papal choir in Rome, Louis XII of France, several church positions

12 Desprez, cont… –Composed masses, motets, secular vocal pieces –Strongly influenced other composers –Praised for his skill

13 Ave Maria…Virgo Serena (1502) (Hail, Mary…Serene Virgin) –4-voice motet –Delicate, serene –Polyphonic imitation Melodic phrase on “Ave Maria” presented by soprano, then imitated in turn by alto, tenor, bass Next, “gratia plena” has different melody, also passed from soprano down Desprez, cont…

14 –Each voice enters while the preceding one is in the middle of its melody. Overlapping creates feeling of continuous flow Ave Maria, cont…

15 –Josquin varied texture within a piece Also imitation between pairs of voices (duets between high voices imitated by duets between low voices)

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17 Sometimes almost homophonic, like at “Ave vera virginitas” Also changes from duple to triple meter, then back to duple

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19 Ends with slow chords, expressing Josquin’s personal plea to the Virgin: O Mother of God, remember me. Amen.

20 –Ave Maria…Virgo Serena (Hail, Mary… Serene Virgin) Josquin Desprez Ave Maria, cont…

21 –Josquin’s varied texture within a piece Also imitation between pairs of voices (duets between high voices imitated by duets between low voices)

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23 Sometimes almost homophonic, like at “Ave vera virginitas” Also changes from duple to triple meter, then back to duple

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25 Ends with slow chords, expressing Josquin’s personal plea to the Virgin: O Mother of God, remember me. Amen.

26 Chapter 2 cont… Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (about ) –Most important Italian composer of Ren. –Devoted to composing for Catholic church –Career in Rome; church positions, including St. Peter’s Basilica –Composed 104 masses, about 450 other sacred works

27 Chapter 2 cont… –Career best understood against the backdrop of the Counter-Reformation. Early 1500’s, Catholic church was challenged by Protestants (non-Catholic Christians). Sought to correct abuses, malpractices Sought to counter the move toward Protestantism Led to convening of the Council of Trent ( ), which considered questions of dogma and organization

28 Chapter 2 cont… Council determined that church music had lost its purity Some complained that complex polyphony had made it impossible to understand the sacred text Some wanted only monophonic music (Gregorian chant) Church music shouldn’t be written for the empty pleasure of the ear, but to inspire religious contemplation Palestrina’s restraint, serenity reflect emphasis on more spiritual music

29 Chapter 2 cont… –Palestrina’s music is regarded as a model for church music because of its calmness, “other-worldly” quality –Even today, the technical perfection of Palestrina is studied as the model for students of composition and counterpoint (imitation)

30 Chapter 2 cont… Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass ( ) –Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina –His most famous –Seen as a reflection of the Council of Trent’s desire for clear projection of sacred text. –A cappella, 6 voice parts Soprano, alto, two tenors, two basses

31 Chapter 2 cont… –Kyrie – 1 st section of the Mass Kyrie eleison.Lord, have mercy. Christe eleison.Christ, have mercy. Kyrie eleison.Lord, have mercy. sounds fuller than Josquin’s Ave Maria because it has two more voice parts Very singable, eased melody, much like a Gregorian chant Leaps are balanced by steps

32 LISTENING TO PALESTRINA Missa Papae Marcelli (Pope Marcellus Mass) Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

33 VOCABULARY REVIEW Renaissance Individualism “Universal man” Humanism Realism Linear Perspective Text Painting/Word Painting Imitation Consonance/Dissonance A cappella Motet Mass –Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei Josquin Desprez Imitation Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Protestant Reformation Counter-Reformation Council of Trent

34 UNIT III PRESENTATIONS Technology: Movable Type Printing Press, Gutenberg Bible Kalyn Julian Blake Jacob Religion: Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation Dominique Phil Alec Bilal Exploration: Columbus, da Gama, Magellan Kieryn Claire Chris Taimoor Art: da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael Emma Aaron Sami Ryan Literature: William Shakespeare Anna Andrew Nathan Nick

35 HOMEWORK Complete the worksheet packet for Chapters 1-2, due tomorrow. –Answers can also be found in books, if you need to take one home…


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