Presentation on theme: "Turn in entries #5, #6 and #7 when done."— Presentation transcript:
1 Turn in entries #5, #6 and #7 when done. Chapter 2: Sacred MusicJournal Entry #7What does a cappella music offer the listener that instrumental music doesn’t?Turn in entries #5, #6 and #7 when done.
2 CHARACTERISTICS, continued from yesterday… What SHMRFT traits can you fill in so far?Text Painting?No extreme dynamic contrast?Little tone color contrast?Little rhythmic contrast?
3 CHARACTERISTICS, cont… TexturePolyphonic4, 5, or 6 voices, nearly equal melodic interestImitationEach voice presents the same melodic idea in turn (as in a round)Some homophonic texture is used, especially in light music, dances
4 CHARACTERISTICS, cont… Fuller soundBass register used for first time, increasing number of octaves heardComposers began to think in chords, in addition to individual melodic linesIn Middle Ages, entire melody lines thought up one at a time and then combined.In Renaissance, melodies were thought up in relation to how they accompany each otherMild, relaxedLots of stable, consonant chords, many triadsVery little dissonance
5 CHARACTERISTICS, cont… “Golden Age” of a cappella choral musicLittle instrumental accompaniment2 Main uses for instruments1. To duplicate vocal lines to reinforce the sound2. Play the part of a missing singerNow what can you add to your SHMRFT traits?
6 CHARACTERISTICS, cont… RhythmGentle flow, not sharply defined beatEach melodic line held great rhythmic independenceMade it challenging to sing – each singer had to be independently strong
7 CHARACTERISTICS, cont… MelodyMelodies generally easy to singMoves stepwise, few large leapsAnd your SHMRFT traits now?
8 LISTENING TO RENAISSANCE Sicut CervusGiovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
9 Chapter 2: Sacred Music2 Main Forms1. Motet2. Mass
10 Style: polyphonic choral works Motet MassShorterSet to sacred Latin text other than the ordinary of the massLongerSet to 5 sections: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus DeiStyle: polyphonic choral worksSacred Text
11 Chapter 2, cont… Josquin Desprez (1440-1521) Flemish (from what is now Belgium)Spent much of life inItalyServed dukes’ privatechapels, papal choir inRome, Louis XII of France,several church positions
12 Desprez, cont… Composed masses, motets, secular vocal pieces Strongly influenced other composersPraised for his skill
13 Ave Maria…Virgo Serena (1502) (Hail, Mary…Serene Virgin) Desprez, cont…Ave Maria…Virgo Serena (1502)(Hail, Mary…Serene Virgin)4-voice motetDelicate, serenePolyphonic imitationMelodic phrase on “Ave Maria” presented by soprano, then imitated in turn by alto, tenor, bassNext, “gratia plena” has different melody, also passed from soprano down
14 Ave Maria, cont…Each voice enters while the preceding one is in the middle of its melody.Overlapping creates feeling of continuous flow
15 Josquin varied texture within a piece Also imitation between pairs of voices (duets between high voices imitated by duets between low voices)
25 Ends with slow chords, expressing Josquin’s personal plea to the Virgin: O Mother of God, remember me. Amen.
26 Chapter 2 cont… Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (about 1525-1594) Most important Italian composer of Ren.Devoted to composing for Catholic churchCareer in Rome; church positions, including St. Peter’s BasilicaComposed 104 masses, about 450 other sacred works
27 Chapter 2 cont…Career best understood against the backdrop of the Counter-Reformation.Early 1500’s, Catholic church was challenged by Protestants (non-Catholic Christians).Sought to correct abuses, malpracticesSought to counter the move toward ProtestantismLed to convening of the Council of Trent ( ), which considered questions of dogma and organization
28 Chapter 2 cont…Council determined that church music had lost its puritySome complained that complex polyphony had made it impossible to understand the sacred textSome wanted only monophonic music (Gregorian chant)Church music shouldn’t be written for the empty pleasure of the ear, but to inspire religious contemplationPalestrina’s restraint, serenity reflect emphasis on more spiritual music
29 Chapter 2 cont…Palestrina’s music is regarded as a model for church music because of its calmness, “other-worldly” qualityEven today, the technical perfection of Palestrina is studied as the model for students of composition and counterpoint (imitation)
30 Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass (1562-1563) Chapter 2 cont…Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass ( )Giovanni Pierluigi da PalestrinaHis most famousSeen as a reflection of the Council of Trent’s desire for clear projection of sacred text.A cappella, 6 voice partsSoprano, alto, two tenors, two basses
31 Chapter 2 cont… Kyrie – 1st section of the Mass Kyrie eleison. Lord, have mercy.Christe eleison. Christ, have mercy.sounds fuller than Josquin’s Ave Maria because it has two more voice partsVery singable, eased melody, much like a Gregorian chantLeaps are balanced by steps
32 LISTENING TO PALESTRINA Missa Papae Marcelli(Pope Marcellus Mass)Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
34 UNIT III PRESENTATIONS Exploration: Columbus, da Gama, MagellanKierynClaireChrisTaimoorArt: da Vinci, Michelangelo, RaphaelEmmaAaronSamiRyanLiterature: William ShakespeareAnnaAndrewNathanNickTechnology: Movable Type Printing Press, Gutenberg BibleKalynJulianBlakeJacobReligion: Martin Luther and the Protestant ReformationDominiquePhilAlecBilal
35 HOMEWORK Complete the worksheet packet for Chapters 1-2, due tomorrow. Answers can also be found in books, if you need to take one home…