Presentation on theme: "Vocal Music cont… Renaissance Ballett (Fa-La) –Simpler than madrigal, dance-like –For several solo voices –Homophonic (a contrast to most Ren. music),"— Presentation transcript:
Vocal Music cont… Renaissance Ballett (Fa-La) –Simpler than madrigal, dance-like –For several solo voices –Homophonic (a contrast to most Ren. music), melody in highest voice –Same music repeated for each verse/stanza, syllables “fa-la” used as refrain –Also originated in Italy, cultivated in England
LISTENING TO BALLETT –Now Is the Month of Maying (1595) Thomas Morley –See books pg. 113
INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC Early 1500’s: inst. music was largely adapted from vocal music. Harpsichord, organ, lute Lute – plucked string instrument with body shaped like half a pear
Late 1500’s (16 th c.): more music written specifically for inst. Mostly intended for dancing (common pass time) –Everyone expected to know how, taught by professional dance masters –Popular dances: pavane or passamezzo (duple meter) Galliard (triple meter)
Instrumental Music, cont… musicians distinguished between loud, outdoor instruments like trumpet, and shawm (ancestor of oboe), and soft, indoor inst. like lute and recorder.
Other inst. of the Renaissance –Cornett – wooden, cup-shaped mouthpiece
–Sackbut – early trombone
–Viols – pretty obvious –Regals (small organ with reed pipes)
–Passamezzo (or pavane) – stately dance in duple meter This recording includes bowed strings, plucked strings, woodwinds, brasses, keyboard ints., timpani. 3 sections (abc), each immediately repeated louder, with more instruments (a a’ b b’ c c’)
–Galliard – carefree dance in triple meter Same melody as our passamezzo, more upbeat Smaller ensemble: bowed strings, plucked strings, woodwinds, harpsichord 3 short sections, each ending with a cadence and brief pause, then repeated more fully (just like pavane) –But then, each section is repeated in succession at the end. –a a’ b b’ c c’ a’ b’ c’
Passamezzo and Galliard from Terpsichore –Michael Praetorius ( ) –From collection of over 300 dances
Chapter 4: The Venetian School –From Renaissance to Baroque Venice, Italy: center of Western music in 16 th c.
–Venice: seaport built on tiny islands separated by canals –Thriving commercial center for trade between Europe and near east.
–Focal point for music in Venice: St. Mark’s Cathedral –wealthy, colorful, employed up to 50 musicians
Famous music directors of St. Mark’s –Adrian Willaert (about ) –Andrea Gabrieli (about ) –his nephew, Giovanni Gabrieli Among the finest comp. of the Ren. Along with their colleagues, called the Venetian School
–Composers inspired by unique architectural feature of St. Mark’s Cathedral: 2 widely separated choir lofts, each with an organ Wrote music for several choruses and groups of instruments (cori spezzati) Becomes mostly homophonic 1 st time we see choral music with specifically instrumental parts – the biggest factor in turning us toward the Baroque era!
–Giovanni Gabrieli (about ) Native of Venice Most important Venetian composer of late Ren. Organist at St. Mark’s 1585-death Composed organ, instrumental and polychoral motets –His polychoral motets call for two to five choirs – the Polychoral Motet Plaudite (Clap Your Hands, 1597)
–the Polychoral Motet –Plaudite (Clap Your Hands, 1597) Joyful Large vocal ensemble of 12 voice parts in 3 choirs Instrumental ensemble (choice of inst. left to performers) Exploits “stereophonic” possibilities of St. Mark’s by rapidly tossing short phrases among 3 separate choirs. Choirs also combine for massive sonority (sound) Dynamic contrast within this piece is a sign of what comes next in the Baroque.
VOCABULARY REVIEW Renaissance Individualism “Universal man” Humanism Realism Linear Perspective Text Painting/Word Painting Imitation Consonance/Dissonance A cappella Motet Mass –Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei Josquin Desprez Imitation Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Protestant Reformation Counter-Reformation
Council of Trent Madrigal Thomas Weelkes Ballett Thomas Morley Pavane/Passamezzo Galliard Lute Cornett Sackbut Shawm Recorder Regal Michael Praetorius Venice, Italy St. Mark’s Cathedral Venetian School Giovanni Gabrieli Cori spezzati Polychoral motet
UNIT III PRESENTATIONS Technology: Movable Type Printing Press, Gutenberg Bible Kalyn Julian Blake Jacob Religion: Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation Dominique Phil Alec Bilal Exploration: Columbus, da Gama, Magellan Kieryn Claire Chris Taimoor Art: da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael Emma Aaron Sami Ryan Literature: William Shakespeare Anna Andrew Nathan Nick