Romanesque in Germany started in the 12 centaury more strength and free from influence of Roman style, or eastern stylesبعيدة عن تأثير الانظمة الشرقية او الرومانية Germans added another apse at the West (the main entrance) اضافوا محراب في الغرب عند المدخل and therefore transferred to the entrances of the church to the sides and appears three apses Details become less and decoration become fewقلت الدبكورات قليلا, simple but accurate moldings has a lot of relief's mass formations Use of simple materials like masonry Façades are almost smoothسلسة و ناعمة Ratios are accurateالنسب دقيقة, which give strengthen the buildingتعطي قوة للمبنى Use of repeated Circular archesتكرار استخدام الاقواس The plan is basilican form with small transepts and the presence of Apses and sometimes has 2-Ailes at each sideفي بعض الاحبان يكون له ممران على كل جانب Apses covered with intersective vaultsالمحاريب مغطاة بالاقبية المتقاطعة but the Nave covered with wooden trusses
Church plans are peculiar in having both western and eastern apsesغريبة قليلا مع وجود المحاريب الغربية و الشرقية and thus there are no great western entrances as in France. The reason for these double apses has never been thoroughly explained ; some think that the eastern apse may have been used for the abbot and monksالمحراب الشرقي لرئيس الدير او الرهبان and the western apse for the bishop and laityو الغربي للأسقف والعلمانيين, or that the western apse may be the survival of the detached baptistery which had been usual in earlier churches. The general character is of numerous circular and octagonal turretsالابراج الدائرية و المقمنة, polygonal domesالقباب المضلعة, and arcaded galleries under the eaves Doorways were placed laterally in the aisles and are the most richly ornamented features of the churches, with shafts and capitals boldly and effectively carvedاعمدة و تيجان منحوتة بجرأة. Vaulting appears late some fifty years after its general adoption in France. Germany, also has aisless transept and chancelمذبح. A typical Germanic characteristic is the presence of towers framing the chancel and the west end في نهاية الجانب الغربي.The paired towers flank each end of the building and have later copper spiresمن النحاس.
The plan is crusading form (basilican form with small transepts) and the presence of Apses and sometimes has 2-Ailes at each side Aisles covered with continuous intersective vaultsأقبية متقاطعة مستمرة (4 or 6 ribs) with transverse arched dividing it to classes but the Nave covered with wooden trusses Churches divided into nave and aisle each divided to 4 square parts4 اجزاء The most important characteristic of German-style the platformالمسرح المرتفع which rise above the level of the nave to placed the shrine beneath.
The plain wall surface is relieved by pilaster stripsدعامات جدارية, derived from Classic Roman artالمستمدة من الفن الروماني الكلاسيكي, connected horizontally at different stages by ranges of archesمتثلة ببعضها بالاقواس on corbels which, owing to the smallness of scale, Open arcades, the origin of which has already been considered, are frequent under the eaves of roofs, especially round apses خاصة المحاريب Churches usually have a triforium and always a clear-story
The towers are basic characters with two, four, or six towers with square, cylinder, or ribbed formاسطوانة او مضلع Sometimes octagonal tower risesابراج ثمانية over the crusading intersection and covered تغطي التقاطخ الصليبي with pyramid roof with small windows underneathو غطاء هرمي مع فتحات صغيرة Square towers الابراج المربعة, divided into storeys تتكون من طابقين by moulded courses, frequently terminate in four gables with rafters rising from the apex of each, and the roofing planes intersect at these rafters and thus form a pyramidal roof with four diamond- shaped sides meeting at the apex هرمي بشكل الماس Polygonal towers have similar roofs, but with valleys between the gables and all show the commencement of the evolution of spire
At the exterior used trusses roofs covered with leadenالرصاص or copperالنحاس and other coverage materials At the interior used ribbed or cross vaults painted with different colors the semicircular cross-vault of the nave is of a domical nature, owing to the use of semicircular ribs, which rise to a greater heightو التي تصل الى ارتفاعات كبيرة over the diagonal of the compartment.فوق المقصورة The system of including two bays of the aisle in one nave vaulting compartment was generally adopted Timber roofs were also employed for naves with large spans,
The pillars are cylindrical or combined containing several rectangular splints has capitals with carved decorations in the form of leaves of trees and animals In nave arcades square piers with attached half-columns were usual; though sometimes varied by the alternationبالتناوب of compound piers and cylinders, crowned by capitals bold in execution and well designed The shafts and capitals in doorways are frequently elaborately carved كانت منحوتةwith figures of men, birds, and animals
Openings are small circular single or two grouped windows form In Towers the openings are two neighbors windows with semi-circle arch with column in between Doors consists of interfered arches loaded at group of continuousتحملها مجموعة مستمرة Nave arcades are frequently unmolded and the semi-circular arches spring from piers or cylinders, while alternate piers are sometimes carried up to support the vault ribsالقبو المضلع Cloisters الاديرة frequently have small columns supporting arches in groups of three The eaves galleries borrowed from Lombardy, are special features, sometimes carried entirely round the church Doorways are frequently in the side aisles instead of in the west front or transepts Windows are usually single, but occasionally grouped and sometimes have a mid-wall shaft columns
The Palace of Aachen was a collection of residential, political and religious buildings used by Charlemagne as the centre of power of his Carolingian Empire The palace was situated in the city of Aachen, in north-west Germany and was an important architectural project and was designed by and mostly built in the 790s although the work continued until the death of Charlemagne in 814. Today, much of the palace has been destroyed, though its chapel survives as part of Aachen cathedral
Possible reconstruction of Charlemagne's palace
Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral built by the Emperor Charlemagne as his royal tomb-house after his death The building is of historic interest as the prototype of other similar churches in Germany, but more especially as the place of coronation of the Holy Roman Emperors the Cathedral nave is a central octagonal space surrounded by one aisle at both sides with two floors The entrance, flanked by staircase turrets, leads into a polygon of sixteen sides, 32m in diameter. External walls consists of the 16 ribs Every two angles of this polygon converge on to one pier, and thus form an internal octagon, the eight piers of which support a dome 14.3m in diameter, rising above the two-storeyed surrounding aisles.
The cathedral nave roofed with 8 ribs domed based on the cylindrical part which contains the windows The west facade has two towers on either side of the entrance and inside each tower ladders to reach the roof of the tower The building has been much altered since the time of Charlemagne, for the Gothic choir was added (A.D. 1353—1413), the gables date from the thirteenth century and the lofty outer roof of the octagon from the seventeenth century. The surrounding chapels are of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the western steeple has been added in recent years
Page of text (folio 160v) from a Carolingian Gospel Book (British Library, MS Add. 11848), written in Carolingian minuscule. Text is Vulgate Luke 23:15- 26.VulgateLuke
the chapel of Charlemagne's palace, now part of Aachen Cathedral. It is Aachen's major landmark, the central monument of the so- called Carolingian Renaissance, and the reason the French call the city Aix-la-Chapelle. The chapel holds the remains of Charlemagne and was the site of coronations for 600 years.
View of the Palatine Chapel (with a glimpse into the choir on the right) from the gallery above
View into the Palatine Chapel View of the floor of the Palatine Chapel from the gallery above.
Sunlight on the modern Cosmatesque floor of the Palatine Chapel.
the gallery and ceiling of the Palatine Chapel from below. The ceiling mosaics are modern but may approximate the original appearance. The columns of the gallery are purely decorative, not bearing any weight of the arches. Charlemagne had 32 of them shipped from the ancient buildings of Rome and Ravenna. Most of them were looted in the French Revolution but 22 have since been returned and restored to their place in the gallery. The piers between the pillars were cast of bronze under orders of Charlemagne for this cathedral. They have elaborate patterns that indicate Roman, Celtic and Frankish influences, and are matched in pairs across from each other.
The golden Shrine of the Virgin Mary was completed in 1238 and contains the Four Great Relics تذكار of Aachen: the cloak عباءةof the Blessed Virgin; the swaddling-clothes القماط of the Infant Jesus; the loin-cloth اللباس الداخليworn by Christ on the Cross; and the cloth on which lay the head of St. John the Baptist after his beheading الحطة. These relics are shown to the public every 7 years (next time 2014). The end gables have figures of Christ and Pope Leo III; the gables on the long sides depict the Madonna and Child (front side) and Charlemagne. The Twelve Apostles populate the rest of the long sides.
The magnificent Golden Pulpit منبر الوعظ, commissioned by Emperor Heinrich II and completed in about 1020. It is covered in gold and jewels and precious objects الاشياء النفيسة, including ancient and medieval bowls. The dishes are not the only unusual decorations: there are also six sensuous pagan ivory reliefs from Egypt, dating from the 6th century AD.
In the upper gallery of the Palatine Chapel, visitors on a guided tour can view the marble throne on which 32 Holy Roman Emperors were coroneted between 936 and 1531. The throne is very simple, consisting of four ancient marble slabs held together by bronze clamps. Its six marble steps, partly carved from an ancient column, refer to Solomon's throne.