4Vocabulary Review!Tyrant – someone who takes power by force and rules with authority.Oligarchy –rule by the fewDemocracy – a citizen-run government.Helot – workers captured and enslaved by the Spartans.
5Tyranny in the City-States Powerful nobles with large farms seized power from the Greek kings.Farmers lost their land and had to work for the nobles or were sold into slavery.Farmers often had to borrow money from nobles and could not pay back the debt.At the end of the Dark Age…Tyrants, or people who take power by force and rule with total authority, arose.Support came from the hoplites in the army, who were also farmers.Tyrants overthrew nobles because they had the backing of the common people.Unhappy farmers demanded changesChanges in thePower StructureTyranny in the City-States
6Athens had a democracy. Sparta had an oligarchy. 1234Most early Greek tyrants acted wisely and fairly.Athens had a democracy.Tyrants made themselves popular by building new marketplaces, temples,and protective walls.Most Greeks didn’t want ruleby one person, sotyrants fell out of favor.Sparta had an oligarchy.By 500 B.C. most city-statesbecame either oligarchiesor democracies.
8Life in SpartaTo keep the helots under control they created a strong military of boys and men.The results were …So this happened …Then this happened …And that led to this …Spartans feared that the helots might rebel against them.Sparta was founded by the Dorians who invaded the Peloponnesus in the Dark Age.Sparta needed more land to grow, so they conquered and enslaved their neighbors.They called their captive workers helots, a Greeks word for “capture”.Started with …
10Spartan MilitaryChildren were raised to be soldiers or the mothers of soldiers.Boys were sent to live in military barracks at the age of 7.Men trained heavily in combat and expected either to win or to die on the battlefield.Spartan men returned home at age of 30 but stayed in the army until age 60.At age 20, Spartan men entered the regular army and lived in the military barracks for another 10 years.They were harshly treated to make them tough.
15Spartan Women They kept fit to become healthy mothers. Spartan girls weretrained in sports suchas running, wrestling,and throwingthe javelin.They kept fit tobecome healthymothers.Spartan WomenWomen ran thehomes and farmswhile the men werein the militaryand living inthe barracks.Spartan womenwere freer thanother Greekwomen and couldown property.
17Goddess Artemis was often seen as a Patron goddess and warrior in Sparta.
18Sparta’s Government Oligarchy Assembly Means rule by a few. Two kings headed a council of elders.The council included 28 citizens over age 60 and presented laws to an assembly.OligarchyEphors enforced the laws and managed tax collection.They voted on the council’s laws and chose 5 people to be ephors.All Spartan men over age 30 belonged to the assembly.Assembly
19Focused Military Training The Spartans focused on military skills to control the people they conquered.Focused Military TrainingSpartans fell behind other Greeks in trade and they knew less about science and other subjects.Spartans soldiers were strong and swift.To prevent questioning of the Spartan system of governmentBanned travel abroad for any reason except military onesFrowned upon citizens who studied literature or the arts.Discouraged foreign visitors
21Life in Athens Main Idea: Athens lay northeast of Sparta, at least a two-day trip away.Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a democracy than building a military force.Main Idea:
22At age 18, boys finished school and became citizens. Athenian girls stayed at home and their mothers taught them spinning, weaving, and other household duties.Women married and stayed home to keep house and to teach their own daughters.Athenian boys went to school where they learned reading, writing, math, music, and sports to become well rounded citizens.At age 18, boys finished school and became citizens.Athenian BoysAthenian Girls
244. 1. 2. 5. 3. 6. Early Athens Government of Athens An assembly of citizensexisted with few powersand the governmentwas an oligarchy.Early AthensAthens after600 B.C.Government of AthensMembers of the assembly were chosen by lottery.4.1.Athenians rebelled against the nobles because many were farmers who owed money and had to sell themselves into slavery to pay their debts.Until the 600’s B.C., Athens was ruled by landowning nobles.2.5.Farmers demanded anend to all debts and landfor the poor.3.6.In 594 B.C. the noblesturned to Solon as a leader.
32Solon’s Reforms to the Government Canceled all the farmers debts.Refused to give away the wealthy nobles’ land.Freed those who had become slaves.A council of 400wealthy citizenswrote the lawsbut the assemblyhad to pass them.Allowed all male citizens to participate in the assembly and law courts.
35After Solon, there were 30 years of turmoil. A tyrant named Peisistratus seized power in 560 B.C. and won support of the poor by dividing large estate among landless farmers.1.2.He also loaned money poor people and gave them jobs in public works.3.Cleisthenes came to power in 508 B.C. and reorganized the assembly.4.
36Reforms of Cleisthenes Made Athens a Democracy Power to debate matters openly, hear court cases and appoint army generals.Gave assemblypowerAlthough women, foreign-born men, and slaves were excluded from voting.Made Athens a DemocracyCreated a council of 500 citizensHelped the assembly carry out daily business such as: proposing laws, dealing with foreign countries, and overseeing the treasury.
37The impact of Cleisthenes' reforms was felt almost immediately, revolutionizing all aspects of Athenian life. Democracy released unheard of potentials in its citizens and ushered in an age of achievement and prosperity.What happened to Cleisthenes after instituting his reforms is, however, a mystery.