Presentation on theme: "The Ancient Greeks: Sparta and Athens Chapter 4 Section 2 Mrs. Deborah Thompson World History."— Presentation transcript:
The Ancient Greeks: Sparta and Athens Chapter 4 Section 2 Mrs. Deborah Thompson World History
Children in ancient Greece played many games we still play today including backgammon, checkers, hockey, and chess Children in ancient Greece played many games we still play today including backgammon, checkers, hockey, and chess
Tyrant – someone who takes power by force and rules with authority. Tyrant – someone who takes power by force and rules with authority. Oligarchy –rule by the few Oligarchy –rule by the few Democracy – a citizen-run government. Democracy – a citizen-run government. Helot – workers captured and enslaved by the Spartans. Helot – workers captured and enslaved by the Spartans.
Powerful nobles with large farms seized power from the Greek kings. Farmers lost their land and had to work for the nobles or were sold into slavery. Farmers often had to borrow money from nobles and could not pay back the debt. At the end of the Dark Age… Tyrants, or people who take power by force and rule with total authority, arose. Support came from the hoplites in the army, who were also farmers. Tyrants overthrew nobles because they had the backing of the common people. Unhappy farmers demanded changes Changes in the Power Structure
Sparta had an oligarchy. Athens had a democracy. Most early Greek tyrants acted wisely and fairly. Tyrants made themselves popular by building new marketplaces, temples, and protective walls. Most Greeks didn’t want rule by one person, so tyrants fell out of favor. By 500 B.C. most city-states became either oligarchies or democracies.
Life in Sparta To keep the helots under control they created a strong military of boys and men. The results were … So this happened … Then this happened … And that led to this … Spartans feared that the helots might rebel against them. Sparta was founded by the Dorians who invaded the Peloponnesus in the Dark Age. Sparta needed more land to grow, so they conquered and enslaved their neighbors. They called their captive workers helots, a Greeks word for “capture”. Started with …
Children were raised to be soldiers or the mothers of soldiers. Boys were sent to live in military barracks at the age of 7. Boys were sent to live in military barracks at the age of 7. Men trained heavily in combat and expected either to win or to die on the battlefield. Spartan men returned home at age of 30 but stayed in the army until age 60. At age 20, Spartan men entered the regular army and lived in the military barracks for another 10 years. They were harshly treated to make them tough.
Spartan girls were trained in sports such as running, wrestling, and throwing the javelin. Spartan women were freer than other Greek women and could own property. Women ran the homes and farms while the men were in the military and living in the barracks. the barracks. They kept fit to become healthy mothers. Spartan Women
Goddess Artemis was often seen as a Patron goddess and warrior in Sparta.
Sparta’s Government Means rule by a few. Two kings headed a council of elders. The council included 28 citizens over age 60 and presented laws to an assembly. Oligarchy Ephors enforced the laws and managed tax collection. They voted on the council’s laws and chose 5 people to be ephors. All Spartan men over age 30 belonged to the assembly. Assembly
The Spartans focused on military skills to control the people they conquered. Focused Military Training Spartans fell behind other Greeks in trade and they knew less about science and other subjects. Spartans soldiers were strong and swift. To prevent questioning of the Spartan system of government Banned travel abroad for any reason except military ones Frowned upon citizens who studied literature or the arts. Discouraged foreign visitors
Athens lay northeast of Sparta, at least a two-day trip away. Athens lay northeast of Sparta, at least a two-day trip away. Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a democracy than building a military force.
Athenian girls stayed at home and their mothers taught them spinning, weaving, and other household duties. Women married and stayed home to keep house and to teach their own daughters. Athenian boys went to school where they learned reading, writing, math, music, and sports to become well rounded citizens. At age 18, boys finished school and became citizens.
An assembly of citizens existed with few powers and the government was an oligarchy. was an oligarchy. Early Athens Athens after 600 B.C. Government of Athens Members of the assembly were chosen by lottery. Until the 600’s B.C., Athens was ruled by landowning nobles. Athenians rebelled against the nobles because many were farmers who owed money and had to sell themselves into slavery to pay their debts. Farmers demanded an end to all debts and land for the poor. In 594 B.C. the nobles turned to Solon as a leader
ATHENS: Yesterday & Today
The Acropolis Today
Olympia: Temple to Hera
The 2004 Olympics w
Solon’s Reforms to the Government Canceled all the farmers debts. Refused to give away the wealthy nobles’ land. Freed those who had become slaves. Allowed all male citizens to participate in the assembly and law courts. A council of 400 wealthy citizens wrote the laws but the assembly had to pass them.
Solon, Reformer of Athens
A tyrant named Peisistratus seized power in 560 B.C. and won support of the poor by dividing large estate among landless farmers. After Solon, there were 30 years of turmoil. He also loaned money poor people and gave them jobs in public works. Cleisthenes came to power in 508 B.C. and reorganized the assembly
Reforms of Cleisthenes Power to debate matters openly, hear court cases and appoint army generals. Gave assembly power Although women, foreign-born men, and slaves were excluded from voting. Made Athens a Democracy Created a council of 500 citizens Helped the assembly carry out daily business such as: proposing laws, dealing with foreign countries, and overseeing the treasury.
The impact of Cleisthenes' reforms was felt almost immediately, revolutionizing all aspects of Athenian life. Democracy released unheard of potentials in its citizens and ushered in an age of achievement and prosperity. What happened to Cleisthenes after instituting his reforms is, however, a mystery.