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Athens and Sparta Chapter 4 Section 2.

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1 Athens and Sparta Chapter 4 Section 2

2 Tyranny in the City-States
Nobles seized power from Greek kings Farmers had to borrow money from nobles and often could not pay back debt Many farmers lost land and had to work for nobles or were sold into slavery Many unhappy farmers wanted changes in the power structure This led to the rise of tyrants: people who take power by force and rule with total authority Most acted wisely and fairly

3 Became popular because of building projects
With the backing of the common people, the tyrants overthrew the nobles in 600s B.C. Became popular because of building projects Marketplaces, temples and walls Other types of government developed: Oligarchy: few people hold power Democracy: all citizens share in running government Greek were never fond of leadership by one man. They wanted a rule of law with all citizens participating.

4 Sparta Founded by the Dorians Needed more land as population grew
Conquered neighboring lands and enslaved the people calling them helots.

5 Why Was the Military So Important
To keep the helots from rebelling, the Spartans created a strong military of boys and men At age 7 they went to live in a military barracks They received a harsh education Public beatings One garment No shoes Forced to steal food Return with your shield or on it! No Surrender!

6 Why Was the Military So Important?
At age 20 military service begins remained in military barracks for 10 years At age 30 Returned home and expected to marry Continued to train for combat At age 60 Soldier could retire from the military Spartan girls were trained in sports to become healthy mothers They had more freedom than any other Greek woman Own property Move about freely Spartans gave up much for their military power. They had no personal freedom and they did not excel in any of the arts, literature, philosophy, or science.

7 What Was Sparta’s Government Like?
Oligarchy Assembly Council of Elders Headed by 2 kings 28 citizens over the age of 60 All men over 30 Voted on laws and elected ephors There were 5 and they enforced laws and collected taxes Created laws

8 Travel abroad was banned Foreign visitors were discouraged
Helots were well controlled for 250 years Focusing on military left the Spartans behind: In trade In knowledge of science and other studies The Spartans believed that the ideal citizen had the following qualities… Courage Strength Endurance Cunning Devotion

9 What Was Life in Athens Like?
Boys went to school Reading, writing, math, sports, music Goal was to create a well rounded Athenian with a sound mind and body At 18 school was over and boys were citizens Girls stayed at home Taught spinning, weaving and other household duties Only some of the wealthy taught their daughters to read and write

10 Greek Democracy

11 A Budding Democracy The first government in Athens was an oligarchy
Again the farmers rebelled against the nobles Farmers demanded that nobles cancel all debts and give land to the poor

12 A Budding Democracy con't
A noble named Solon reformed Athenian government in 594 B.C. Canceled all debts Freed those who became slaves All male citizens could participate in the Assembly and courts Created Council of 400 that wrote laws that were passed by Assembly The tyrant Peisistratus seize power 30 years after Solon's reform Divided large estates amongst landless farmers Created public works jobs Nobles were unhappy with reforms

13 A Budding Democracy con't
Cleisthenes took power in 508 B.C. He created a democracy in Athens. All men could debate openly Hear court cases Appoint army generals He gave Assembly more power. Created Council of 500 to help Assembly carry out duties. Members of the Council were chosen by lottery. Non-citizens still exclude

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