2 Tyranny in the City-States Nobles seized power from Greek kingsFarmers had to borrow money from nobles and often could not pay back debtMany farmers lost land and had to work for nobles or were sold into slaveryMany unhappy farmers wanted changes in the power structureThis led to the rise of tyrants: people who take power by force and rule with total authorityMost acted wisely and fairly
3 Became popular because of building projects With the backing of the common people, the tyrants overthrew the nobles in 600s B.C.Became popular because of building projectsMarketplaces, temples and wallsOther types of government developed:Oligarchy: few people hold powerDemocracy: all citizens share in running governmentGreek were never fond of leadership by one man. Theywanted a rule of law with all citizens participating.
4 Sparta Founded by the Dorians Needed more land as population grew Conquered neighboring lands and enslaved the people calling them helots.
5 Why Was the Military So Important To keep the helots from rebelling, the Spartans created a strong military of boys and menAt age 7 they went to live in a military barracksThey received a harsh educationPublic beatingsOne garmentNo shoesForced to steal foodReturn with yourshield or on it!No Surrender!
6 Why Was the Military So Important? At age 20military service beginsremained in military barracks for 10 yearsAt age 30Returned home and expected to marryContinued to train for combatAt age 60Soldier could retire from the militarySpartan girls were trained in sports to become healthy mothersThey had more freedom than any other Greek womanOwn propertyMove about freelySpartans gave up much for their military power.They had no personal freedom and they did not excel in any of the arts, literature, philosophy, or science.
7 What Was Sparta’s Government Like? OligarchyAssemblyCouncil of EldersHeaded by 2 kings28 citizens overthe age of 60All men over 30Voted on laws andelected ephorsThere were 5 and they enforced laws and collected taxesCreated laws
8 Travel abroad was banned Foreign visitors were discouraged Helots were well controlled for 250 yearsFocusing on military left the Spartans behind:In tradeIn knowledge of science and other studiesThe Spartans believed that the ideal citizen had the following qualities…CourageStrengthEnduranceCunningDevotion
9 What Was Life in Athens Like? Boys went to schoolReading, writing, math, sports, musicGoal was to create a well rounded Athenian with a sound mind and bodyAt 18 school was over and boys were citizensGirls stayed at homeTaught spinning, weaving and other household dutiesOnly some of the wealthy taught their daughters to read and write
11 A Budding Democracy The first government in Athens was an oligarchy Again the farmers rebelled against the noblesFarmers demanded that nobles cancel all debts and give land to the poor
12 A Budding Democracy con't A noble named Solon reformed Athenian government in 594 B.C.Canceled all debtsFreed those who became slavesAll male citizens could participate in the Assembly and courtsCreated Council of 400 that wrote laws that were passed by AssemblyThe tyrant Peisistratus seize power 30 years after Solon's reformDivided large estates amongst landless farmersCreated public works jobsNobles wereunhappywithreforms
13 A Budding Democracy con't Cleisthenes took power in 508 B.C.He created a democracy in Athens.All men could debate openlyHear court casesAppoint army generalsHe gave Assembly more power.Created Council of 500 to help Assembly carry out duties.Members of the Council were chosen by lottery.Non-citizensstill exclude