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Life in Two City-States: Athens and Sparta

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1 Life in Two City-States: Athens and Sparta

2 The Nature of Athenian Democracy
The government was the world’s first democracy, a form of government run by the people. Only free male Athenians over the age of 20 who had completed military training were considered citizens and allowed to vote. Women, children, and immigrants had no role in the government; nor did slaves.

3 Citizens’ Duties Citizens were expected to: Vote in all elections
Serve in office if elected Serve on juries Serve in the military during war.

4 Athenian Government Athenian democracy consisted of three main bodies.
The first was an assembly that included citizens. This assembly approved all of the laws and important decisions for Athens. It met on a particular hill within the city. This type of system, in which all people vote directly on an issue, is called a direct democracy. The second was the Council of 500. The 500 met daily. The main role of the Council, was to write laws. The members were chosen randomly. The third was the courts that heard trials and sentenced criminals. Members of these courts, which could number up to 6,000 people, were chosen from the assembly.

5 Athenian Economy Athenians got the goods they needed for everyday life by - trading with foreign lands and other city-states. - buying and selling goods in the agora, or marketplace. - using coins, which made trade easier.

6 Education in Athens Athenian boys were taught to be good citizens.
went to school between the ages of 6 and 14. They learned reading, writing, arithmetic, literature, sports, and music. began military training at age 18. sometimes continued their education with a private tutor if they were wealthy.

7 Women in Athens Women in Athens - were not citizens. - could not choose their husbands. - could not own much property. - sometimes were priestesses. - managed their households. - didn’t go out alone.

8 Slaves in Athens Slaves in Athens - were either born slaves or had been captured in war. - performed a variety of jobs, some of them highly skilled. - sometimes worked in silver mines.

9 Sparta Sparta was one of the mightiest city-states in Greece, if one of the least typical. Located on the Peloponnesus, the large peninsula of southern Greece, Sparta was at first surrounded by smaller towns. Over time, Sparta seized control of the towns around it.

10 Spartan Government Sparta was an oligarchy where - the real power was in the hands of only a few people. - the important decisions were made by the Council of Elders. - council members had to be at least 60 and wealthy. - council members served for life. - the Assembly had little power. - the Assembly did not debate issues.

11 Spartan Economy Spartans got the goods they needed for everyday life by - farming. - carrying on some trade with other city-states.* forcing conquered people to become helots, or state slaves who farmed for the Spartans. *Sparta discouraged trade (even used heavy iron bars for money) and feared outside ideas could hurt their polis.

12 Education in Sparta The Spartans demanded strength and toughness from birth. Babies, boys and girls alike, were examined for strength after birth. If a child was found unhealthy, he or she was left in the wild to die. At age seven, all children began training for combat. At the end of their training, groups of boys were sent into the wilderness with no food or tools and were expected to survive. At age 20, boys became hoplites, or foot soldiers. They remained in the army for 10 years, after which time they were allowed to leave and take their place as citizens.

13 Women in Sparta Sparta was rather unusual among Greek city-states in that women played an important role in society. Spartan women were trained in gymnastics for physical fitness. The Spartans thought women had to be fit to bear strong children. They had the right to own property, a right forbidden to women in most of Greece.

14 Slaves in Sparta Helots (slaves) were given to Spartan citizens to work on farms so that the citizens did not have to perform manual labor. The helots outnumbered Spartan citizens by about seven to one and were always ready to rebel against their rulers. Consequently, helots - were treated very harshly. - were killed if it was thought they might rebel. However, helots - could marry freely. - could sell any extra crops they had. - could buy their freedom.

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