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Nation Building and Imperialism in Latin America

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1 Nation Building and Imperialism in Latin America

2 Nationalistic Revolts in Latin America- Why?
Nationalism. Successful revolution in North America. Creole elite influenced by Enlightenment; equality, free trade and freedom of speech and the press became desired. Latin American elites disliked Spanish and Portuguese domination.

3 Where Did These Revolts Occur?
Haiti Mexico Argentina Venezuela Bolivia Chile Uruguay Paraguay Colombia Brazil Peru

4 Social Classes in Latin America Who were they? What did they want?
Penninsulares Creoles Mulattos Meztizos Indian African Slaves

5 Haiti: Toussaint L’Ouverture
Haiti a French colony, used for its sugar plantations supported by large population of African slaves. In 1804 Haiti declared independence from France. L’Ouverture led the first successful slave revolt. 1st colony to become independent in Latin America.

6 Mexico: Hidalgo The Creole elites wanted to rid Mexico of penninsulares rule. Hidalgo inspired by the French Revolution. 1810 – inspired revolt of Indians and Meztizos to fight the Spanish. Although Hidalgo was defeated, his fight for independence is recognized - September 16th, “Mexican Independence Day”

7 Mexico: Morales Attemtped to unify whites and mixed races for independence. Helped create the “Revolutionary Congress” and wanted to draft a constitution. New Spain’s government became ruthless about stopping Morales. Royalist militias murdered those who supported Morelos.

8 Mexico: Iturbide Creoles and Pennisulares together, afraid of the Indian and Meztizo revolts, overthrew Spanish rule as a way of preserving their own power. They chose a military leader, Agustin de Iturbide, 1st emperor of Mexico, in 1821. Executed by liberals 1824.

9 Jose de San Martin Freedom Fighter
A Creole elite, believed that the Spanish should be removed from Latin America. By 1810, San Martin had freed Argentina from Spanish rule. San Martin, in a surprise attack that comprised of crossing the Andes Mountains, defeated the Spanish and liberated Chile in 1817.

10 Simon Bolivar “Liberator of South America”
Creole elite wanted to rid South America of Spanish rule. Bolivar led struggle for independence in Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. Later led fight for independence for all South American countries. Assisted and took control from San Martin and continued to liberate more South American countries. By 1823, in central America, Bolivar influenced the liberation of El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

11 Brazilian Independence
When Napoleons forces conquered Portugal, Brazilians were able to take control of Spain’s weaknesses. The Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil to escape Napoleon’s forces. In 1822, Dom Pedro (Pedro I) declared Brazil independent from Portugal and claimed himself emperor. Pedro I accepted a constitution that provided freedom of the press and religion as well as allowing an elected legislature.

12 Imperialism: the United States becomes involved in Latin America
By the 1820’s there still remained a threat to the newly won independence of Latin America. Britain and other European nations still wanted to have control over Latin America; politically and economically.

13 The Monroe Doctrine In 1823, James Monroe of the United States guaranteed Latin American independence. And… warned European nations that the United States would not tolerate European involvement in the United State's “Sphere of Influence” or the land in the New World.

14 The Difficulties of Nation Building in Latin America
the new Latin American nations - republics, faced a number of serious problems from. wars of independence resulted in staggering loss of people, property and livestock. The new nations, unsure of their precise boundaries, attempted to settle border disputes with war. Poor roads, a lack of railroads, thick jungles, and mountains made communication, transportation and national unity difficult.

15 Church vs. State Church and state conflict; liberals wanted to curtail the power of the church while conservatives fought for maintaining the Churches privileges. In Mexico, , the division between church and state led to a civil war.

16 Caudillo Rule The new governments of Latin America began with republican governments, but they had no experience ruling themselves. After independence, strong leaders - Caudillos came to power. Caudillos ruled chiefly by military force and were supported by the “landed elites”. Some Caudillo’s helped modernize by building roads and canals, ports and schools. The caudillo’s authority depended on his personal power. When he died or lost power, civil wars for control of the country often erupted.

17 Antonio Lopez Y Santa Anna
A caudillo who ruled Mexico from He misused state funds, halted reforms, created chaos and helped lose one third of Mexico’s land to the U.S.A.

18 Juan Manuel de Rosas Caudillo leader of Argentina from 1829- 1852.
Protected Argentina from foreigners. Supported by the masses, was extremely popular and serves as an instrument for radical change.

19 Latin American Economy
Political independence brought economic independence, but old patterns were quickly reestablished. Latin America continued to serve as a source for wheat, tobacco, wool, sugar, coffee and hides b/c of cheap labor. Textiles were imported.

20 Latin American Economy Controlled by Landed Elites
The economic control by landed elites was a problem. Land = wealth, social prestige and political power. Landed elites controlled government, courts, and a system of inexpensive labor. Landowners > enormous profits growing single specialized crops for export, such as coffee. Most people didn’t have land to grow basic food crops, experienced dire poverty.

21 Change & Tradition in Latin America
Growth of Latin American economy from the export of raw materials. Latin America dependent on nations to the West (U.S. and Europe). Poverty based on race and social class remained. Latin America still underdeveloped region

22 Latin American Middle Class Emerges
A middle class emerged due to the prosperity of the increased exportation of raw goods. By the 1900’s this population expanded, and this middle class shared common characteristics. lived in cities, sought education and decent incomes, Viewed United States as a model of industrialization.

23 Middle Class Values Middle Class sought liberal reforms, not revolution. Once they had the right to vote, they generally sided with the landowning elites.

24 Political Change in Latin America
After 1870, large landowners in Latin America began to take a more direct interest in national policies and even in governing. In Argentina and Chile, landowning elites controlled the government, they wrote constitutions, but kept their power by limiting voting rights.

25 Portfirio Diaz Mexico Ruled 1876 - 1910.
Diaz, conservative, created centralized government with the support of the army, foreign capitalists, large landowners, and the Catholic Church. During Diaz’s rule, wages of workers declined. By 1910 the Mexican Revolution > Diaz ousted.

26 Diaz Indigenous people were subsequently forced into debt slavery (Peonage) Diaz supported “redistribution” of land to wealthy landowners Peasants suffered.

27 Emiliano Zapata Hero of peasants
Zapata seized estates of wealthy landowners. Between , the revolution damaged Mexican economy. Zapata’s accomplishments: 1917 constitution enacted strong presidency, created land- reform policies, established limits on foreign investors agenda to help the workers. The revolution also led to outpouring of patriotism.

28 United States Influence Late 1800’s – early 1900’s
United States emerging world power, interferes in the affairs of its southern hemisphere. Cuba > protectorate of the U.S. after the Spanish American War of 1898. U.S. annexed Puerto Rico 1898. In 1908, the U.S. supported a rebellion that enabled Panama to separate from Colombia. What will the U.S. now control?

29 United States Influence Continued
American Investments in Latin America soon followed, as did American resolve to protect those investments. Between , American military forces were sent to Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Guatemala, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic to protect AMERICAN INTERESTS!!! How will many Latin Americans view the US?

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