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Latin American peoples win Independence

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Presentation on theme: "Latin American peoples win Independence"— Presentation transcript:

1 Latin American peoples win Independence
Chapter 24 Section 1 Latin American peoples win Independence

2 Key Terms Mulatto Creoles Peninsulares Miguel Hidalgo
Jose Maria Morelos Simon Bolivar Jose de San Martin

3 Revolutions in the Americas
First Latin American country to break ties with Europe Located in the western Caribbean Dan Dominique one of France’s richest possessions (sugar)

4 Revolutions in the Americas
Declarations of rights of men gave all men the right to vote Including Mulattoes Mixed African and French ancestry French settlers resisted the new law Tensions arose

5 Revolutions in the americas
Toussaint L’Ouverture- a former enslaved African led mulattoes and slaves in a bloody revolt Made him a hero in Hispanola Napoleon sent a French General to take control 1802 French agreed to an armistice 1803 French break deal and imprison Toussaint

6 Haiti’s Independence January 1, 1804 General Dessalines declares colony independent First black colony to free itself from Europe Called Haiti for mountainous land

7 Colonies of Spain and Portugal
1800’s Spain controlled Latin America including Mexico Portugal governed Brazil 1700’s Spanish kings made improvements Roads Regulating trade Colonies grew in wealth and prosperity

8 Colonies of Spain and Portugal
Wealth gave Latin Americans greater exposure to education Read works of Enlightenment philosophers Learned of revolutions in France and United States

9 Creoles Lead Independence
Creoles-people born in colonies and are European descent Peninsulares-colonists born in Spain Similar between Portuguese born and colonists Creoles excluded from high level government and church position

10 Creoles Lead Independence
High positions reserved for the Peninsulares Small percentage of population Creoles started to resent Peninsulares 1807 Napoleon invaded Spain Creole revolutionaries decided to act

11 A Cry for Freedom Miguel Hidalgo-1810 first to call for Mexican independence September 16, 1810 Hidalgo rang a bell and delivered a speech against the Peninsulares Death to bad government and death to the Spaniards.”

12 A Cry for Freedom The revolt was not against Spain
Spanish authorities knew he was behind the revolution He was captured and executed Hidalgo became the father of Mexican independence

13 A Cry for Freedom Jose Maria Morelos became the new leader
Organized Mexican congress with representatives Morelos wanted all people born in Mexico to be called Americans Wanted Mexico to an independent republic with guaranteed freedoms

14 A Cry for Freedom He led troops into Mexico
Took control of parts of Mexico 1815 he was defeated by Agustin de Iturbide Was captured and executed for treason

15 Mexico’s independence
Not all Creoles wanted independence Agustin de Iturbide wanted to lead the final battle against the revolutionaries Believed he could end the Mexican independence movement

16 Mexico's independence Iturbide made a three part proposal
Mexico would gain its independence Creoles and peninsulares would have equal rights Roman catholic Church would be the official church Both royalists and rebels joined Iturbide became Emperor Agustin I

17 Bolivar’s route to Victory
Most influential leader in South American independence Known as the liberator Born into a wealthy Creole family Admirer of Napoleon 1811 Venezuela declared independence from Spain

18 Bolivar’s Route to Victory
Bolivar led a series of expeditions against Spanish forces Bolivar dreamt about an independent South America Wanted a large united country called the Federation of the Andes

19 Bolivar’s Route to Victory
Set up Gran Colombia Included Venezuela Columbia Panama Ecuador Other leaders set up other countries Peru Bolivia

20 San Martin leads Southern Liberation forces
Fought for independence in the North Was a soldier who fought against Napoleon Born in Argentina Lead independent movement in Argentina

21 San Martin Leads southern Liberation Forces
After declaring independence for Argentina in 1816 San Martin moved to Chile Led troops over a 15,000 foot summit Surprised Spanish troops and win independence

22 Jose de San Martin Moved to Gran Colombia Met Simon Bolivar
San Martin resigned his position Left Bolivar in charge Defeated the Spanish in 1824 (Peru) Last major battle for independence

23 Brazil’s Royal Liberator
Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1807 John VI fled to Brazil Lived there for 10 years Raised the status of the colony Became the capitol of Portuguese Empire John named Rio de Janeiro the capitol

24 Brazil’s royal Liberator
Brazil allowed to trade with the rest of the world John VI returned to Portugal in 1820 Left his son Don Pedro to rule Bolivar and San Martin were liberating the rest of South America

25 Brazil’s royal liberator
1822 Creoles demand independence 8,000 Brazilians sign a petition September 1822 Prince Pedro declared Brazil independent Pedro I was soon crowned emperor Achieve independence with very little violence

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