2Influences on Latin American Nationalism Enlightenment IdeasGovernment that works for the peopleAmerican RevolutionShowed that foreign rule could be overthrownFrench RevolutionMost of Latin America is controlled by European nations.These influences will cause Latin American nations to start to believe they can overthrow their European rulers.
3Haiti French colony French planters own huge sugar plantations. Half a million Africans work as slaves in terrible conditions.Mulattoes = persons of mixed ancestryHave very few rights.
4Haiti & Toussaint L’Ouverture 1791Self-educated former slave named Toussaint L’Ouverture led a revolt over the French in Haiti.Haitian forces overpower the French.Napoleon tried to send an army to Haiti to put France back in control there.Captured L’Ouverture.Yellow fever wiped out most of the French troops, and Haiti became independent in 1804.
5Simon Bolivar & South America Spain controlled most of South America.Simon Bolivareducated Creoleled a resistance movement against Spain in South America.Known as “the Liberator”Over 12 years, gained independence for Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
6Bolivar + San MartinSimon Bolivar joined forces with Jose de San Martin to continue freeing South American countries from Spanish control.Together, they defeated the Spanish in Argentina and Chile in the 1810s.
7Independence IssuesWhat are some challenges a newly independent country might face?
8Latin American Independence Issues Geographic BarriersLatin America covers from Mexico all the way to the southern tip of South AmericaBarriers like the Andes Mountains made uniting difficult.Social InjusticeColonial social structure (peninsulare, creole, mestizo, mulatto) stayed in place.Creoles replaced peninsulares as most powerful.Mestizos, mulattoes, Indians, and Africans had few rights.
9Latin American Independence Issues Military RulersThe native people didn’t have experience running their own governments.Caudillos – local military groupsCaudillos became strong enough to take control of the government.Military dictators run nationsIgnored newly-written constitutionsFavored the upper classRestricted rights to keep control.
10Latin American Independence Issues Economic IssuesRelied on cash cropsSugar, cotton, coffeeWhy is depending on one or two cash crops problematic?ImperialismForeign investors provided money so mining and agriculture could grow.Most economic benefits went to the upper class.
11The Mexican Revolution Porfirio Diaz ruled as a Mexican dictator in the early 1900s.Built railroads and industry grew.Wealth went to upper class.Diaz brutally oppressed oppositionMost dictators do.Most Mexicans are uneducated, landless, and poor.
12Who Led the Mexican Revolution? Emiliano ZapataLed peasant revolts in the south.Francisco “Pancho” VillaRebel leader in the north.Venustiano CarranzaElected president of Mexico in 1917.Approved a constitution that is still used today.
13Effects of the Mexican Revolution Before the Revolution(Under Dictator Diaz)After the Revolution(with the help of Zapata, Villa, and Carranza)No constitution and limited rightsConstitution that gave more rights to workers and womenMost Mexicans uneducated.Schools and libraries set up.Poor economy.Ended economic dependence on other countries. Industries developed.Lack of nationalism.Pride in Latin American culture. Painting, murals, and writings celebrate Mexican culture.