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Latin American Independence Movements

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Presentation on theme: "Latin American Independence Movements"— Presentation transcript:

1 Latin American Independence Movements

2 Influences on Latin American Nationalism
Enlightenment Ideas Government that works for the people American Revolution Showed that foreign rule could be overthrown French Revolution Most of Latin America is controlled by European nations. These influences will cause Latin American nations to start to believe they can overthrow their European rulers.

3 Haiti French colony French planters own huge sugar plantations.
Half a million Africans work as slaves in terrible conditions. Mulattoes = persons of mixed ancestry Have very few rights.

4 Haiti & Toussaint L’Ouverture
1791 Self-educated former slave named Toussaint L’Ouverture led a revolt over the French in Haiti. Haitian forces overpower the French. Napoleon tried to send an army to Haiti to put France back in control there. Captured L’Ouverture. Yellow fever wiped out most of the French troops, and Haiti became independent in 1804.

5 Simon Bolivar & South America
Spain controlled most of South America. Simon Bolivar educated Creole led a resistance movement against Spain in South America. Known as “the Liberator” Over 12 years, gained independence for Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.

6 Bolivar + San Martin Simon Bolivar joined forces with Jose de San Martin to continue freeing South American countries from Spanish control. Together, they defeated the Spanish in Argentina and Chile in the 1810s.

7 Independence Issues What are some challenges a newly independent country might face?

8 Latin American Independence Issues
Geographic Barriers Latin America covers from Mexico all the way to the southern tip of South America Barriers like the Andes Mountains made uniting difficult. Social Injustice Colonial social structure (peninsulare, creole, mestizo, mulatto) stayed in place. Creoles replaced peninsulares as most powerful. Mestizos, mulattoes, Indians, and Africans had few rights.

9 Latin American Independence Issues
Military Rulers The native people didn’t have experience running their own governments. Caudillos – local military groups Caudillos became strong enough to take control of the government. Military dictators run nations Ignored newly-written constitutions Favored the upper class Restricted rights to keep control.

10 Latin American Independence Issues
Economic Issues Relied on cash crops Sugar, cotton, coffee Why is depending on one or two cash crops problematic? Imperialism Foreign investors provided money so mining and agriculture could grow. Most economic benefits went to the upper class.

11 The Mexican Revolution
Porfirio Diaz ruled as a Mexican dictator in the early 1900s. Built railroads and industry grew. Wealth went to upper class. Diaz brutally oppressed opposition Most dictators do. Most Mexicans are uneducated, landless, and poor.

12 Who Led the Mexican Revolution?
Emiliano Zapata Led peasant revolts in the south. Francisco “Pancho” Villa Rebel leader in the north. Venustiano Carranza Elected president of Mexico in 1917. Approved a constitution that is still used today.

13 Effects of the Mexican Revolution
Before the Revolution (Under Dictator Diaz) After the Revolution (with the help of Zapata, Villa, and Carranza) No constitution and limited rights Constitution that gave more rights to workers and women Most Mexicans uneducated. Schools and libraries set up. Poor economy. Ended economic dependence on other countries. Industries developed. Lack of nationalism. Pride in Latin American culture. Painting, murals, and writings celebrate Mexican culture.

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