2 Social and Ethnic Structure Peninsulares- Spanish descent and born in SpainCreoles- Spanish descent and born in the New WorldMestizo- mix of Native American and European descentMulatto- mix of African and Spanish descent
3 Napoleon Invades Spain Simon Bolivar- was a creole who was influenced by the Enlightenment ideas in Europe.Most creoles did not care for social change due to their high social status.Napoleon Invades SpainNapoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 caused widespread revolt in Latin America. Latin American leaders saw this as an opportunity to gain independence from colonial rule.
4 Spain Wins Freedom for Haiti French planters who owned sugar plantations on Hispaniola enslaved over 500,000 slaves.Toussaint L'Ouverature was an ex-slave who led a rebellion on the island of Hispaniola in 1791.Britain and Spain sent troops to help stop the rebellion and any possible spread of revolution to their colonies.By 1798 slavery was abolished in the island. In 1802 Napoleon sent a large army to reclaim the island. A truce was called in 1802, but L’Ouverature was arrested and sent to a French prison. The island won its independence in 1803 and became a republic in 1820.
5 Mexico and Central America Revolt In 1810 Father Miguel Hidalgo rallied creoles, mestizos, and Native Americans to fight for their independence.Creoles eventually began to fear their power would diminish if freedom was granted to the lower classes.Hidalgo was arrested and executed. His followers broke apart and did not continue the push for equality.
6 Mexico Gains independence Father Jose MorelosWas a mestizo who wanted drastic social and political reform. For four years he led a group of guerillas until he was caught and executed in The Spanish forces who caught Morelos were backed by conservative creoles.Mexico Gains independenceIn Spain in 1820 liberals forced the king to issue a constitution. This worried a creole named Agustin de Iturbide because he thought the same would be done to Spain’s colonies. Iturbide changed his mind and supported these reforms . He overthrew the Spanish viceroy and named himself emperor. Liberals overthrow this government and established the Republic of Mexico
7 Revolution Ignites South America Simon Bolivar, “The Liberator”, led an uprising that started a republic in Venezuela.Conservatives put an end to the republic, but Bolivar and his army crossed the Andes Mountains and retook Bogota from the Spanish. He later helped free Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.Jose de San Martin helped Chile and Argentina win freedom from Spain.The wars for independence ended in 1824