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Presentation on theme: "NATIONAL BUILDING IN LATIN AMERICA"— Presentation transcript:

Section 4 NATIONAL BUILDING IN LATIN AMERICA What we are going to focus on in this section is how central and south America caught the bug of nationalism and became independent of the Western powers who had controlled them but still relied on them economically for trade.

2 A. Nationalist Revolts Political ideals stemming from the revolution in North America put European control of Latin America in peril. Social classes divided Latin America; and held all important positions. Creoles controlled land and business. Peninsular regarded the creoles as second class citizens. -social classes just like in the French revolution played a big part in the 19th cen revolutions of Latin America --Peninsular- Spanish and Portuguese officials who resided in Latin America for political and economic gain. They dominated the political structure and held all the important positions. Creoles controlled the land and were viewed as second class citizens Mesitzos were servants and laborers

3 A. Nationalist Revolts 1. Prelude to Revolution
Creoles were descendants of European born in Latin America who lived there permanently. Creoles favored revolutionary ideals of equality of all people. Francois Toussaint Lourveture started the revolutions. Led revolt on island that became known as Haiti. Became first independent state in Latin America. They supported the ideas of the enlightenment that had started the French revolution ( equality for all before the law, free trade, and a free press). Remember they were treated as second class citizens. They did not like the dominance of Spain and Portugal. When napoleon took control of these two powers many yrs earlier their control of their colonies weakened allowing for revolts to take place and be successful gaining them their independence. One of the most well known of these revolts was the one that occurred in Haiti led by Franciois Dominiqu Too-san loo vuhr tyur. The Island was originally called Hispaniola. He led a slave revolt of 100,000 and eventually the Haiti became the first free Latin American state. Saint-Domingue also had the largest and wealthiest free population of color in the Caribbean, the gens de couleur (French, "people of color"). The mixed-race community in Saint-Domingue numbered 25,000 in First-generation gens de couleur were typically the offspring of a male, French slaveowner and an African slave chosen as a concubine. In the French colonies, the semi-official institution of "plaçage" defined this practice. By this system, the children were free people and could inherit property, thus originating a class of "mulattos" with property and some with wealthy fathers. This class occupied a middle status between African slaves and French colonists. Some Africans also enjoyed status as gens de couleur. (See also Mestizo). As numbers of gens de couleur grew, the French rulers enacted discriminatory laws. Statutes forbade gens de couleur from taking up certain professions, marrying whites, wearing European clothing, carrying swords or firearms in public, or attending social functions where whites were present. However, these regulations did not restrict their purchase of land, and many accumulated substantial holdings and became slave-owners. By 1789, they owned one-third of the plantation property and one-quarter of the slaves of Saint-Domingue.[15] Central to the rise of the gens de couleur planter class was the growing importance of coffee, which thrived on the marginal hillside plots to which they were often relegated. The largest concentration of gens de couleur was in the southern peninsula, the last region of the colony to be settled, owing to its distance from Atlantic shipping lanes and its formidable terrain, with the highest mountain range in the Caribbean.

4 A. Nationalist Revolts 2. Revolt in Mexico
Miguel Hidalgo started. He roused the Native Americans and mestizos. His forces were poorly trained and Hidalgo was sentenced to death. Eventually Agustin de Iturbide brought freedom to Mexico. He became emperor. Miguel Hidalgo was a priest who lived 100 miles from Mexico city and studied the French revolution and the rights the French people fought for. He rallied the Mestizos who were of native and European descent the free themselves from the Spanish. He was not an experienced military leader and his forces were crushed. He was sentenced to death. September 16th is Mexico's independence day the first day of the uprisings. Afraid of the Spanish elite the penisulares and creoles worked in putting down the revolts but then turned and overthrow the Spanish rule. They then established a monarchy with Augustine EE*tur*bee*thay who ruled for a yr and was disposed of an Mexico became a republic in 1823.

5 A. Nationalist Revolts 3. Revolts in South America
Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar were hailed as the “liberators of South America.” San Martin believed that the Spaniards must be removed from all of South America, if any South American nation was to be free. Bolivar began the struggle for independence in Venezuela and went on to Ecuador. San Martin liberated Argentina and Chile. The two eventually joined forces and liberated the rest of Spanish South America. Moving onto south America Martin of Argentina and Bolivar of Venezuela were both of Creole elites and led revolutions throughout south America. They believed that the Spanish must be removed in order for SA to be free. Martin knew to defeat the Spanish he would have to give them a surprise they did not expect. He did this by taking his forces over the Andes mountains which are 2miles above sea level. 2/3rd of the pack animals died during the trip. In Peru Bloivar met up with martin and together the forces defeated the Spanish December 1824.

6 A. Nationalist Revolts 4. Threats to Independence
Other European countries wanted to move into Latin America and take over these new lands. Britain wished to trade with Latin America and wanted to join with USA to figure out. James Monroe did not trust the British. The MONROE DOCTRINE was put in which strongly warned against any European intervention in the Americas. Remember the concert of Europe still exist at this time ( it is 1830 now the concert of Europe ended in 1870’s /last chapter just focused on Europe but this chapter is focusing on the world during the same time we just finished talking about) and the principle of Intervention that they could invade if a country was revolting. The concert wanted to restore Spanish control but the British who were thinking of economic gains in trade sided with America in keeping European powers out. USA did not trust Britain and President James Monroe created the Monroe doctrine protecting the Independent nations. It warned against European intervention in Latin America. The British used their navy as a force against the other European nations at the time.

7 B. Nation Building The wars of independence had resulted in a staggering loss of people, property and livestock. Not sure of borders countries went to war to secure borders. Countries became economically dependent on western nations once again. Remember the European powers had established there own borders but there had been natural border previously. Our world today still suffers over border disputes from past times in history. Example: middle east, Africa, Asia disputed border (dashed lines varies on who you talk to where they are). China cassimere region btw Pakistan and India is a disputed border. Israel when Britain and France with drew land made for the Jews. the natural cultural boarders were ignored. Other groups forced out.

8 B. Nation Building 1. Rose of the Caudillos
Began with republican governments but had no experience in self rule. Strong leaders known as CAUDILLOS gained power. Rule by military force. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna ruled Mexico. Called self the “Napoleon of the West” he misused state funds, halted reforms and created chaos American settlers in Texas revolted against Santa Anna. Texas gained its independence and was later annexed to USA. War between Mexico and USA followed.  Benito Juarez followed Santa Anna and brought liberal reforms to Mexico. Benito reforms again enlightenment ideas ( sep of church and state, Lessing power of military, educational system, and redistribution of land to the poor)

9 B. Nation Building 2. A New Imperialism
Political independence brought economic independence but old patterns were quickly reestablished. Great Britain and US now dominated Latin America economy by foreigners. These countries built transportation and communication systems and power plants. New imperialism no longer was control of the land but the economy instead Britain and USA controlled the economic world. Both poured in funds and merchants into these areas. During this time USA was the major loans dealer of the world. They built transportation, communication and power plants/ also new inventions like the steam engine of the time.

10 B. Nation Building 3. Economic Dependence
The emphasis on exporting raw material and importing finished products ensured the ongoing domination of the Latin American economy by foreigners. Most LA countries experienced uneven economic development since they were almost wholly dependent on the sale of one or two cash crops. LA countries remained economically dependent on western nations. Cash crops are grown for sale rather than for substance which can be detrimental if there is a drop in demand or if something destroys a harvest. They exported raw materials and cash crops to other nations and were dependent on their manufactured goods. Between the 1800s and 1930s the South’s defendant economy (validated notion by Western modernization theorists) fed industrializing nations raw materials they needed to build their societies. Such goods including Guatemala’s bananas, Chile’s copper, Argentina’s wool and wheat, Peru’s silver, Cuba’s sugar and tobacco, and Brazil’s mahogany wood and coffee just to name a few were favorite possessions of the North. In return, these countries received a small sum of hard currency that landed in the pockets of the elite. The great depression had devastating repercussions in Latin America economies since they depended on the West’s capital. This did not stop industrializing countries from sucking out the South’s resources and raw materials at a disgustingly cheap rate, while leaving them with useless currency. This unidirectional continuum fostered neo-colonial economic interests; simultaneously stunting the South’s development and deepening the gap with the North. Countries tried to break away from this dependency model by implementing import substitution industrialization (ISI). They ushered in local production of industrialized products and implemented high import tariffs to cut foreign trade and economic relations. In theory, ISI sounded like a smooth departure from dependency; but in practice, those who could afford to purchase their nation’s import substitution products would buy goods from European and Western countries instead. This in turn orchestrated unparalleled economic ramifications

11 B. Nation Building 4. Persistent Inequality
Fundamental problem for all of LA nations was the domination of society by the landed elites. Land remained the basis of wealth, social prestige, and political power throughout the 19th century. Much medieval Europe where wealth depended on money the SA worked much the same why. The landed elites had large estates like the Sanchez Navarro family who in 1848 owned 16 estates ( about 16 million acres). Estates were so large they could not be farmed properly. These elites were the ones who ran the governments, courts, and kept a system of inexpensive labor by hiring those of the lower classes. They made their wealth from the single cash crops. As a result of so much land being owned by the elite there was no land for the poor to grow crops to feed themselves which lead to further decline.

12 C. Change in Latin America
After 1870, LA governments led by large landowners, wrote constitutions similar to the US. 1. The US in Latin America US was world power by Began to intervene in the affairs of southern neighbors. Cuba was a protectorate, Puerto Rico was annexed. We supported revolution that allowed Panama to separate from Columbia. In return we got to build and control Panama Canal. Just like France and the US those in power made the decisions. For example, the land elites of Latin America controlled the government but they did see how the rights they wanted from the imperialist were important to protect. They were still selfish and did not want to give up to much power so they used limitations on voting to keep certain classes from voting and upsetting the balance they wanted to keep. USA became a dominant world power in 1900 and became very involved with its southern neighbors after the Spanish american war of after the war cuba became a protectorate of the USA-Relationship in which one country exercises some decisive control over another country or region. The degree of control may vary from one in which the protecting state guarantees the safety of the other to one that is a disguised form of annexation. Though the relationship is an ancient one, the use of the term dates only from the 19th century. In modern times most protectorates have been established by treaties requiring the weaker state to surrender management of its international relations, thus losing part of its sovereignty. That same year Puerto Rico was also annexed to the USA as a common wealth. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico), is anunincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeasternCaribbean east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands. "The term 'Commonwealth' does not describe or provide for any specific political status or relationship. It has, for example, been applied to both states and territories. When used in connection with areas under U.S. sovereignty that are not states, the term broadly describes an area that is self-governing under a constitution of its adoption and whose right of self-government will not be unilaterally withdrawn by Congress".[1] The USA Theodore Roosevelt supported the rebellion that allowed panama to spread from Columbia and establish a new nation. In returned we received a 10 mile strip of land running coast to coast which became the building ground for the panama canal which we just handed back to panama a few years ago. It opened in 1914 and was one of the greatest engineering feats of the time. it is still used today but needs to bee redone. Video on map 3: min other video on the expansion 6 min Canal was given back December 1st 1999 Today panama cargo ships because they are the max of what can fit. Or they unload stuff onto trains and then reload on the other side.

13 C. Change in Latin America
2. American Investments Soon expanded. We sent military forces to many LA countries to protect our interests. In Haiti and Nicaragua we had marines for years.

14 C. Change in Latin America
3. Revolution in Mexico Porfirio Diaz created a conservative, centralized government. Was supported by all the major institutions. Wages of workers had declined so they were upset. The northern states were in near anarchy as PANCHO VILLA armed masses of bandits swept the countryside. Was a demand for land reform and this was led by Emillano Zapata. He aroused the masses of landless peasants and began to seize and redistribute the estates of wealth landholders. This was the Mexican Revolution and finally a new constitution was enacted. Set up a president, created land reform policies, established limits on foreign investors and set an agenda to help the workers. Major institutions land elite, church, foreign business men or capitalist, army. They all supported a dictators who supported their interest. Poncho was a bandit. Event the generals wanted change and blamed Diaz for not fixing the problems.

15 C. Change in Latin America
4. Prosperity and Social Change After 1870 prosperity based to a large extent on the export of a few basic items. Wheat and beef from Argentina, coffee from Brazil. Increased industrialization. Had growth in middle sectors which lived in cities and sought education and decent incomes. US was a model for liberal reform.

16 21-4 Review Leaders of newly formed LA republics Caudillos
Miguel Hidalgo. A hero of Mexican independence after 1810, had studied what? The French Revolution Mexican ruler from Santa Anna Guarantee by the US to protect LA from Europe Monroe Doctrine

17 21-4 Review The Mexican period of reform from 1855 to 1876 included:
Separation of church and __. State Land distribution to the ___. Poor The ___ system Education Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar led South American independence movements against what country? Spain

18 21-4 Review Most privileged Latin American class Peninsulares
This country dominated the economy of LA in the 19th century Britain Mexican reform leader Benito Juarez Wealth, social prestige, and political power during the 19th century in LA were based on what? Land


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