2 4 outside events that prompted it: Enlightenment ideas of liberalism spread among CreolesAmerican Revolution showed how it could be done - inspired revolutionary leadersFrench Revolution idea of “liberty, equality and fraternity” but up to a point.Fear of Haiti’s slave revolt made Creoles act quickly.
3 Stop - review society:Known as a sociedad de castas - based on racial origins:peninsulares - born in Spain - Spanish government officials, church officials - the clergy: priests, monksCreoles - born in America - controlled local economies, owned haciendas (plantations) and minesthe castas - mestizos and mulattos - those of mixed originsIndians and African slaves
4 Short-term cause - What sparked it? Napoleon forces invade Iberian Peninsularesistance to Napoleon’s forces: (1) guerilla fighters and (2) “junta central” - royalists claiming to rule temporarily while king was awayProblem of legitimacy - What is the legitimate government of Spain?“juntas” central committees formed in SpainPeninsulares do not recognize juntas as the legitimate government of Spain
5 3 separate revolutions: MexicoNorthern South America: Venezuela, Colombia and EcuadorSouthern South America: Argentina
6 MexicoMexico - Father Miguel de Hidalgo - leads Indians and mestizos - Creoles fear thisAugustin de Iturbide - Creole officer takes over - proclaimed emperor of Mexico 1821The rest of Central America separates from Mexico which becomes a republic.
7 Northern part of South America Simon Bolivar - Bolivar The Liberator: wealthy Creole - creates Gran Colombia by “America is ungovernable. Those who have served the revolution have plowed the sea.”Liberator turned dictator but is unable to prevent break-up of Gran Colombiapolitical differences and regional differences cause break up (unlike the U.S. where Lincoln preserves the Union in Civil War)
8 European influence of Nationalism on Latin American Revolutions Statute of Simon BolivarStatue of Napoleon
9 Southern part of South America Jose de San Martin - Buenos Aires, Argentina and Chile, PeruBy 1825 all of Spanish South America had gained its political independence.
10 Brazil A totally different path to independence. Napoleon forces in Portugal leads royal family to move to Brazil - Rio de Janeiro.When king returns to Portugal, youngest son stays - warns him if independence comes he should lead it.He does he becomes Dom Pedro I
11 Independence of Latin America Except for Brazil - all become republicsMexico a temporary monarchy and then a republicHaitian revolution made Latin American revolutionaries very conservative - social revolutions were avoided
12 Early governments of Latin America Problems: social inequalities, disagreements over political representation and the role of the church and regionalismSolution: rise of personalist (charismatic) leaders, caudillos, supported by strong militariesSlavery will be abolish by 1854 except for Cuba and Puerto Rico - still Spanish colonies and Brazil is independent but economy still dependent on slavery.Early governments of Latin America
13 Rise of caudilloscaudillos - independent leaders who dominated local areas by force because they either led or were back up by the military - not constitutional gov’ts - personalist leader - follow Napoleon’s examplesome represented the interest of landed elitessome represented the populous - indians, mestizos, poor peasants
14 Where do you think the caudillos got the idea to rule as a dictator with the support of a military? Napoleon
15 Other problems causing division All wanted a republic but disagreed after that:centralists (wanted tax and trade policies to be controlled by the central government) vs. federalists ( wanted it controlled at the regional level)conservatives (wanted to keep the church in power) vs. liberals (promoted secularism and individual rights)First 50 years were unstable, presidents and constitutions came and went - overturned
16 Reasons for Latin America Instability Internal reasons:Problems of personalism, charismatic leadersa lack of civic responsibility needed for representative governmentsunequal distribution of wealth = uprisingsExternal reasons:meddling of Western powers = US neocolonialismPhilip II - Absolutist Monarch of Spain
17 Debate over political instability and struggling economies of Latin American nations: Nations have been unable to rule themselves due to corrupt governments leading to a lack of economic development.VS.Western imperialist powers like the U.S. have interfered with these nations leading to neocolonialism.