Presentation on theme: "Latin American Revolutions Preview: Imagine you’re a newspaper reporter for the Haitian Holler, the only newspaper available for poor workers in Haiti."— Presentation transcript:
Latin American Revolutions Preview: Imagine you’re a newspaper reporter for the Haitian Holler, the only newspaper available for poor workers in Haiti (a small Caribbean island controlled by France). You have seen democracy spread to the USA, France, & England. Write a column in your paper explaining why Haiti should embrace democracy. How would their lives be different? Preview: Imagine you’re a newspaper reporter for the Haitian Holler, the only newspaper available for poor workers in Haiti (a small Caribbean island controlled by France). You have seen democracy spread to the USA, France, & England. Write a column in your paper explaining why Haiti should embrace democracy. How would their lives be different?
140Latin American Revolutions ISN pg 140 title: Latin American Revolutions –How did the Scientific Revolution lead to the Enlightenment? –How did the Enlightenment lead to the French Revolution? –How do you think the American Revolution & French Revolution are going to lead to revolutions in Latin America?
Latin American Independence
Overview of Latin America For 300 years, Spain used its colonies in Latin America for 3 reasons: –Gold –Gold: to increase their wealth (cash crops, gold, silver) –Glory –Glory: to increase their power –God –God: to convert Native Americans to Catholicism Mercantilism! Today, 90% of Latin America is Roman Catholic
Spanish Colonies in Latin America
Treasures from the Americas!
The Colonial Class System Peninsulares Peninsulares— governors sent by the king to rule the colonies Creoles Creoles— European settlers who moved to the colonies to live Mestizos Mestizos— Natives of mixed European & Indian blood Mulattos Mulattos— Natives of mixed European & African blood Native Americans Black Slaves
Growing Discontent BUT…in the early 1800s, many Latin Americans became inspired by the Enlightenment, American & French Revolutions & began to demand their independence from European colonizers In the 1800s, Latin Americans began to challenge for their independence
Who led the revolutions in Latin America?Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Native Americans Black Slaves Creoles The Creoles played the largest role because they were wealthy, well- educated in the Enlightenment but they were controlled by the Peninsulares Creoles Why did the Creoles lead the Latin American wars for independence?
Independence in Haiti
Uprising in Haiti The 1 st Latin American uprising took place in the French colony of Haiti 90% of Haitians were slaves who worked fields to provide Europe with sugar & coffee (French were usually cruel slave masters) In the 1790s, François Toussaint- Louverture (a former slave) led a revolt but was captured by Napoleon’s army in 1802
Uprising in Haiti Haitians took advantage of the French soldiers’ sickness due to malaria & defeated the French In 1804, Haiti became Latin America’s 1 st independent former colony
Independence in Mexico
Miguel Hidalgo Mexico was under Spanish rule, but by 1810 an independence had begun led Miguel Hidalgo a Catholic priest; Hidalgo was captured & killed
Independence in Mexico Agustín de Iturbide In 1821, a revolution in Spain allowed creoles to declare their independence; military general Agustín de Iturbide named himself emperor of Mexico In 1823, Iterbide was overthrown & Mexico became a democratic republic
South American Colonies Venezuela Columbia Panama Bolivia Ecuador Chile Peru
Independence in South America Inspired by revolutionary movements, the people of South America revolted Simón Bolívar Simón Bolívar—led revolt against Spanish; Won freedom for Northern Latin America (Venezuela, Columbia, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador)
Independence in South America José de San Martín José de San Martín—freed Southern Latin America (Chile & Peru) By 1826, all of South America was liberated
Common Problems in Latin America
Common Problems Latin Americans created democratic republics in their newly independent nations, just like the USA & France But, because Latin Americans were not given the chance to vote or hold office when they were colonized, they did not know how to rule themselves well
Common Problems caudillo Almost all Latin American nations were run by a caudillo, who claimed to be a president but ruled as a dictator After independence, there was little change for common people; creoles & caudillos took power from the peninsulares but did not help the lower class native people These caudillos wanted power, not improvements for the citizens
Common Problems The new nations in Latin America –had little manufacturing so they became dependent upon the United States for trade –had weak armies so they were vulnerable to conquest by stronger European countries
Common Problems Monroe Doctrine The USA wanted to protect Latin America (and its “economic interests” in Latin America); US President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823— “Latin America is off limits! The US will protect it”
Questions to Ponder What purpose did Latin American colonies serve for European nations? Describe the class structure in Latin America during the 1800s. Are Latin American nations better off independent than they were as European colonies?
ISN pg 140 or 141—Compare & contrast the French & Latin American Revolutions by creating a Venn Diagram: ISN pg 140 or 141—Compare & contrast the French & Latin American Revolutions by creating a Venn Diagram: Latin American French