Presentation on theme: "Latin American Revolutions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Latin American Revolutions Preview: Imagine you’re a newspaper reporter for the Haitian Holler, the only newspaper available for poor workers in Haiti (a small Caribbean island controlled by France). You have seen democracy spread to the USA, France, & England. Write a column in your paper explaining why Haiti should embrace democracy. How would their lives be different?
2 ISN pg 140 title: Latin American Revolutions How did the Scientific Revolution lead to the Enlightenment?How did the Enlightenment lead to the French Revolution?How do you think the American Revolution & French Revolution are going to lead to revolutions in Latin America?
4 Overview of Latin America For 300 years, Spain used its colonies in Latin America for 3 reasons:Gold: to increase their wealth (cash crops, gold, silver)Glory: to increase their powerGod: to convert Native Americans to CatholicismMercantilism!Today, 90% of Latin America is Roman Catholic(mercantilism):
8 The Colonial Class System Peninsulares—governors sent by the king to rule the coloniesCreoles—European settlers who moved to the colonies to liveMestizos—Natives of mixed European & Indian bloodMulattos—Natives of mixed European & African bloodThe Creoles played the largest role: they were wealthy, well-educated in the Enlightenment but did not have a say in the government (controlled by peninsulares)Black SlavesNative Americans
9 Growing DiscontentBUT…in the early 1800s, many Latin Americans became inspired by the Enlightenment, American & French Revolutions & began to demand their independence from European colonizersIn the 1800s, Latin Americans began to challenge for their independence
10 Who led the revolutions in Latin America? PeninsularesCreolesWhy did the Creoles lead the Latin American wars for independence?MestizosMulattosThe Creoles played the largest role because they were wealthy, well-educated in the Enlightenment but they were controlled by the PeninsularesBlack SlavesNative Americans
12 Uprising in HaitiThe 1st Latin American uprising took place in the French colony of Haiti90% of Haitians were slaves who worked fields to provide Europe with sugar & coffee (French were usually cruel slave masters)In the 1790s, François Toussaint-Louverture (a former slave) led a revolt but was captured by Napoleon’s army in 1802
16 Independence in Mexico Mexico was under Spanish rule, but by 1810 an independence had begun led Miguel Hidalgo a Catholic priest; Hidalgo was captured & killed
17 Independence in Mexico In 1821, a revolution in Spain allowed creoles to declare their independence; military general Agustín de Iturbide named himself emperor of MexicoIn 1823, Iterbide was overthrown & Mexico became a democratic republic
19 South American Colonies ColumbiaSouth American ColoniesVenezuelaPanamaEcuadorPeruBoliviaChile
20 Independence in South America Inspired by revolutionary movements, the people of South America revoltedSimón Bolívar—led revolt against Spanish; Won freedom for Northern Latin America (Venezuela, Columbia, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador)
25 Common ProblemsLatin Americans created democratic republics in their newly independent nations, just like the USA & FranceBut, because Latin Americans were not given the chance to vote or hold office when they were colonized, they did not know how to rule themselves well
26 These caudillos wanted power, not improvements for the citizens Common ProblemsThese caudillos wanted power, not improvements for the citizensAlmost all Latin American nations were run by a caudillo, who claimed to be a president but ruled as a dictatorAfter independence, there was little change for common people; creoles & caudillos took power from the peninsulares but did not help the lower class native people
27 Common Problems The new nations in Latin America had little manufacturing so they became dependent upon the United States for tradehad weak armies so they were vulnerable to conquest by stronger European countries
28 Common ProblemsThe USA wanted to protect Latin America (and its “economic interests” in Latin America); US President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823— “Latin America is off limits! The US will protect it”
30 Questions to PonderWhat purpose did Latin American colonies serve for European nations?Describe the class structure in Latin America during the 1800s.Are Latin American nations better off independent than they were as European colonies?
31 ISN pg 140 or 141—Compare & contrast the French & Latin American Revolutions by creating a Venn Diagram:Latin AmericanFrenchWrite these on the board: inspiration? Goals? leadership? Types of gov’t (before and after)? Social classes? Problems faced (before and after)? Result of the revolution? Enlightenment ideas?