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Latin American Revolutions

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Presentation on theme: "Latin American Revolutions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Latin American Revolutions
Preview: Imagine you’re a newspaper reporter for the Haitian Holler, the only newspaper available for poor workers in Haiti (a small Caribbean island controlled by France). You have seen democracy spread to the USA, France, & England. Write a column in your paper explaining why Haiti should embrace democracy. How would their lives be different?

2 ISN pg 140 title: Latin American Revolutions
How did the Scientific Revolution lead to the Enlightenment? How did the Enlightenment lead to the French Revolution? How do you think the American Revolution & French Revolution are going to lead to revolutions in Latin America?

3 Latin American Independence

4 Overview of Latin America
For 300 years, Spain used its colonies in Latin America for 3 reasons: Gold: to increase their wealth (cash crops, gold, silver) Glory: to increase their power God: to convert Native Americans to Catholicism Mercantilism! Today, 90% of Latin America is Roman Catholic (mercantilism):

5 Spanish Colonies in Latin America

6 Treasures from the Americas!


8 The Colonial Class System
Peninsulares—governors sent by the king to rule the colonies Creoles—European settlers who moved to the colonies to live Mestizos—Natives of mixed European & Indian blood Mulattos—Natives of mixed European & African blood The Creoles played the largest role: they were wealthy, well-educated in the Enlightenment but did not have a say in the government (controlled by peninsulares) Black Slaves Native Americans

9 Growing Discontent BUT…in the early 1800s, many Latin Americans became inspired by the Enlightenment, American & French Revolutions & began to demand their independence from European colonizers In the 1800s, Latin Americans began to challenge for their independence

10 Who led the revolutions in Latin America?
Peninsulares Creoles Why did the Creoles lead the Latin American wars for independence? Mestizos Mulattos The Creoles played the largest role because they were wealthy, well-educated in the Enlightenment but they were controlled by the Peninsulares Black Slaves Native Americans

11 Independence in Haiti

12 Uprising in Haiti The 1st Latin American uprising took place in the French colony of Haiti 90% of Haitians were slaves who worked fields to provide Europe with sugar & coffee (French were usually cruel slave masters) In the 1790s, François Toussaint-Louverture (a former slave) led a revolt but was captured by Napoleon’s army in 1802


14 Uprising in Haiti Haitians took advantage of the French soldiers’ sickness due to malaria & defeated the French In 1804, Haiti became Latin America’s 1st independent former colony

15 Independence in Mexico

16 Independence in Mexico
Mexico was under Spanish rule, but by 1810 an independence had begun led Miguel Hidalgo a Catholic priest; Hidalgo was captured & killed

17 Independence in Mexico
In 1821, a revolution in Spain allowed creoles to declare their independence; military general Agustín de Iturbide named himself emperor of Mexico In 1823, Iterbide was overthrown & Mexico became a democratic republic


19 South American Colonies
Columbia South American Colonies Venezuela Panama Ecuador Peru Bolivia Chile

20 Independence in South America
Inspired by revolutionary movements, the people of South America revolted Simón Bolívar—led revolt against Spanish; Won freedom for Northern Latin America (Venezuela, Columbia, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador)


22 Independence in South America
José de San Martín—freed Southern Latin America (Chile & Peru) By 1826, all of South America was liberated


24 Common Problems in Latin America

25 Common Problems Latin Americans created democratic republics in their newly independent nations, just like the USA & France But, because Latin Americans were not given the chance to vote or hold office when they were colonized, they did not know how to rule themselves well

26 These caudillos wanted power, not improvements for the citizens
Common Problems These caudillos wanted power, not improvements for the citizens Almost all Latin American nations were run by a caudillo, who claimed to be a president but ruled as a dictator After independence, there was little change for common people; creoles & caudillos took power from the peninsulares but did not help the lower class native people

27 Common Problems The new nations in Latin America
had little manufacturing so they became dependent upon the United States for trade had weak armies so they were vulnerable to conquest by stronger European countries

28 Common Problems The USA wanted to protect Latin America (and its “economic interests” in Latin America); US President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823— “Latin America is off limits! The US will protect it”


30 Questions to Ponder What purpose did Latin American colonies serve for European nations? Describe the class structure in Latin America during the 1800s. Are Latin American nations better off independent than they were as European colonies?

31 ISN pg 140 or 141—Compare & contrast the French & Latin American Revolutions by creating a Venn Diagram: Latin American French Write these on the board: inspiration? Goals? leadership? Types of gov’t (before and after)? Social classes? Problems faced (before and after)? Result of the revolution? Enlightenment ideas?


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