Infancy – Piaget’s Sensory Sub-stages # 1 to 4 1) Reflexive schemes / (0- 1 mos.) - Centering around the infant’s own body…(Reflexes: sucking, rooting & grasping) 2) Primary circular reactions / (1- 4 mos.)- Repeated movements, centering around infant’s body & objects…by chance 3) Secondary circular reactions / (4-8) - Infants repeat actions that include objects in their environment; focus on reactions from the object & reactions of other’s in the environment… 4) A child’s ability to relate 2 actions/ (8-12 mos.) Intentional behavior…moving Piaget’s hand out of the way to get a desired object.
(Bowlby) Attachment The emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver… Phases of attachment Phase 1 (Birth – 2 mos.): Indiscriminate Social Responsiveness Phase 2 (2-7 mos.): Discriminate Social Responsiveness
Phase 3 (8-24 mos.): Focused Attachment Attachment is connected to an infant’s emotional & physical development… Wariness of strangers- will cry and retreat to the mother in the presence of a stranger. Separation protest (anxiety) - the infant will cry & look for the mother when they are separated.
Mary Ainsworth (strange situation)…separation anxiety Time: 3 min. 50 seconds
What happens when an infant does not develop a healthy attachment? Attachment styles: - Secure - Insecure - Avoidant/Ambivalent -
Small Group Discussion How does culture influence the attachment process? Provide examples of your own…
Emotions Fear is not shown until around 9 mos. (mobile/ depth perception); visual cliff https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p6cqNhHrMJA 2:36 Anger is exhibited around 6 mos. Shame begins to be displayed around 18 mos.
Getting Ready for the next Topic… Small Group Discussion Think of a child that you know…his/her behavior, how he/she responds to the world, or people in the environment. Q: So, what is the reason for the child’s “personality”? Considering a child’s “personality”, what may be some concerns about the parent-child relationship,
Think of two (or three different children that you know) that are 6-12 years old. How are they different? Why are they different? Do the child(ren’s) parent(s) treat them differently because of the child(ren’s) respective “personality”? Knowing about “Temperament” will help answer these questions.
Temperament The aspect of personality, which includes emotional expressiveness & responsiveness to environmental stimulation… Is meant to describe the behavioral style, reflecting… 8:25 Predictions based on stability of temperament are more accurate Stability of temperament style (beyond 24 mos.) relies on: 1) child’s ability to make effortful control; 2) the child’s experience
Thomas & Chess Goodness of fit… 9 dimensions of temperament… 3 main categories were identified…
9 dimensions of temperament Activity- refers to how active a child is… Intensity- refers to the energy level of a child’s… response Sensitivity- refers to how much stimulation is needed to evoke a child’s response…
Adaptability- refers to how much time a child takes to adjust to changes/intrusions/restrictions/transitions, etc. Approach -Withdrawal- refers to a child’s response to new things: food, person, toy or place… Persistence - refers to a child’s tendency to continue an activity until it is finished…
Distractability- refers to how easily a child is drawn away from an activity he or she is involved in… Rhythmicity- refers to the predictability of a child’s sleep- wake cycle, hunger/eating pattern, & elimination pattern… Mood- refers to a child’s tendency to be smiling and cheerful as opposed to unsmiling & thoughtful…
3 Temperament Categories: The easy child- 40 % of sample The difficult child- 10 % of sample The slow-to-warm-up child- 15 % of sample 35 % of sample: did not fit any of the categories