Benjamin Franklin urged colonists to fight with the British against the French and Native Americans by publishing this cartoon.
American colonists were loyal subjects to the King of England and were supportive of the decisions of Parliament. American colonists fought with British soldiers against the French and Native American alliance. Colonists felt threatened by French and Native American forces and wanted protection, so they sided with the British. Most of the battles were fought in the Ohio River Valley, the land between the Mississippi River, the Appalachian Mountains and the Great Lakes. At the time, this geographic region was also known as the Northwest Territory. England won the war and France forfeited all lands in this region to England at the Treaty of Paris (1763).
French and Spanish forces cede large amounts of land to England. Colonists living in North America cannot settle lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. British troops will remain in the western territory to monitor French and Native American activity and to protect the colonists. British troops will maintain forts and supply chains in this territory.
After the French and Indian War, England kept large forces of soldiers and supplies in the Northwest Territory. In order to maintain the forts, pay the soldiers, and supply them with provisions, Parliament passed the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act taxed colonists on all paper products, including playing cards, posters, and legal documents. Many colonists disagreed with this act because they were paying for soldiers to live in a place where they were not permitted to settle.
After the Stamp Act, Parliament issued new taxes on glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Again, this tax was an attempt to raise revenue so that England could pay for its military forces in the Ohio River Valley and Great Lakes region. After the French and Indian War, England accrued a lot of debt and this act was another attempt to pay off some of that debt. Colonial frustration towards England begins to grow.
In order to keep the colonists calm, loyal, and obedient, England sends warships loaded with cannons and troops to Boston. Many colonists did not appreciate the imposing force that invaded Boston. Tensions start to rise.
Two Perspectives of the Boston Massacre (Point of View)
Four colonists were killed in the Boston Massacre, including Crispus Attucks (left). The newspaper (right) published an political cartoon of their coffins.
As tensions rise in the colonies, especially in Massachusetts, so do British attempts to quiet the anti-loyalist movement. The Boston Massacre enraged many colonists, who were beginning to express their anger in newspaper articles, protests in the streets, and secret meetings. These actions increased pressures on Parliament to do something about the conflict in the colonies. Parliament issued the Tea Act, taxing the most popular drink at the time.
I had the pleasure to receive your letter...and am greatly obliged to you for your kind remembrance of me, and the pains you have taken to get me appointed for the disposal of the stamps in this province [Nova Scotia].... There is a violent spirit of opposition raised on the continent against the execution of the Stamp Act, the mob in Boston have carried it very high against the Secre[tar]y [Andrew Oliver]...for his acceptance of an office in consequence of that Act. They have even proceeded to sow violence, and burnt him in effigy. They threaten to pull down & burn the stamp office row building; and that they will hold every man as infamous that shall presume to carry the Stamp Act into execution, so it is thought Mr. Oliver will resign. I don't find any such turbulent spirit to prevail among us, if it should, the means are in our Hands to prevent any tumults or Insults; what the consequences may be in the colonies who have no military force to keep the rabble in order, I cannot pretend. Letter from Archibald Hinschelwood, 1765 Source: www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=258www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=258
The QUARTERING ACT stated that Colonial Authorities had to furnish British troops with sleeping quarters and supplies and included public places, abandoned buildings, and then private residences. The BOSTON PORT BILL said that the port of Boston was closed to all colonists until the damages from the Boston Tea Party were paid. The ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ACT stated that British officials could not be tried in the colonies for any crimes they committed. The MASSACHUSETTS GOVERNMENT ACT said that colonists no longer had any control over local political decisions. The QUEBEC ACT extended the Canadian border into the colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Virginia.
Every colony except Georgia sends delegates to Philadelphia to discuss possible solutions to the British occupation in the colonies. All delegates are either elected or appointed by the Committees of Correspondence. They cannot compromise on a course of action and many delegates remain loyal to the crown. The delegates agree to meet again in one year to discuss further options. Carpenter’s Hall, Philadelphia, PA
Patrick Henry, an anti-loyalist from Virginia, is one of the most quoted leaders of the movement for independence in the colonies. He also famously said, “If this be treason, make the most of it!” Often called a “radical” for his views, it wasn’t long before most colonists shared his views, opinions, and ideas.
“The Shot Heard ‘Round the World” British General Gage planned to capture John Hancock and Samuel Adams and steal gunpowder. Anti- loyalist spies, like Paul Revere, discovered the plan and alerted the minutemen. These battles are often called the first battles of the American Revolution.
In order to protect the citizens of Boston, Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys seized huge stashes of British artillery from their fort in New York. Then they hauled in hundreds of miles through rough terrain to defend the city. It was a legendary trek.
Held at Independence Hall in Philadelphia, PA. George Washington selected as the supreme commanded of the Continental Army. Olive Branch Petition sent to King George III.