Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Origins of U.S. Government. Section 1-Early Influences-Objectives Pages 21-24 What political ideals did English colonists bring with them to."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 2 Origins of U.S. Government
Section 1-Early Influences-Objectives Pages What political ideals did English colonists bring with them to North America? What major documents limited the power of English monarchs? How were the ideals of limited and representative government evident in colonial governments?
Activity Imagine that as a class you are stranded on a deserted island. In addition to finding food sources, building shelter, and identifying potential hazards, consider what sort of government would you have on your island. Think about and come to an agreement. Consider elements of government you would include and what element you would change. Why it might be important to have a written constitution that outlined your ideas. In this section you will learn how the British colonists in North America created a new form of government.
Drawing Conclusions Activity I will divide you into groups of five to six people. Each group will have a “leader” who will receive a deck of cards. The “leader” will receive instructions on how to use the deck of cards.
An English Heritage The ideals of the English were brought to North America and are still found in Britain today. Great Britain does not have a written Constitution- a basic set of laws and principles establishing the nation’s government. Limited Government: Before the 1200s there were few limits on government in England. Without any written Constitution monarchs could seize property, raise taxes, or give land to those who were loyal to the monarchy. ( Example: What if student body presidents have power.)
A president must act within the rules set by the school administration and an elected student council. Student government is limited without the consent of the governed – the students. Magna Carta- or “Great Charter” Nobles of England had legal and social privileges, of course they didn’t like the monarch’s unlimited power. In 1215 the nobles forced King John to sign the charter which limited the monarchy’s power by helping establish the rule of law – government leaders, even monarchs, act according to set laws.
Under the charter– monarchs could not levy taxes without noble’s consent. People accused of crimes the right to a trial by their peers or equals. Prevented monarch’s from imprisoning people or taking away their property on his or her sole authority. Magna Carta was meant only for the nobility, in the future it would apply to all English citizens.
Monarchs had to consider how their decisions would affect the people they govern. Magna Carta laid the foundation for government that promotes the public good. Representative Government: Representative government has its foundations in council of nobles and high religious officials that advised monarchs. In time local towns and villages became part of the council.
Bicameral- two-chamber legislature called Parliament. Nobles were the upper house or the House of Lords. House of Commons, lower house were local officials. Representatives of the people worked to limit the power of the monarchs. Petition of Right: 1628, Parliament forced Charles I to sign the petition which limited the ability of the monarch to act on sole authority.
Petition of Rights continued: Monarchs could not imprison people illegally Force citizens to house soldiers in their homes. Establish military rule during times of peace. Parliament had to approve levying taxes. The Petition of Right was just a part of a conflict between Charles and Parliament. Eventually becoming a civil war in which the army of Parliament defeated Charles supporters.
1649-Charles was beheaded 1660-is when England had a king again 1660-Charles II assumed the throne. James II, Charles’ brother, succeeded in 1685 Glorious Revolution of 1688: William of Orange who was husband to Mary, daughter of James to invade England. William arrived with troops and James fled the country. Parliament asked William and Mary to be king and queen of England. Parliament forced them to accept the English Bill of Rights.
English Bill of Rights: established that the monarchy could not rule without consent of Parliament. The document had many protections: Right to petition the king without fear of punishment and free parliamentary elections. The monarch from maintaining an army without parliamentary consent. Parliament should operate without royal interference.
Colonial Development 1607-The first permanent English colony was established at Jamestown, Virginia. Settlements were influenced by the basic English principle of government. Charter: an agreement in which the English monarch gave the right to establish a colony. Massachusetts Charter: limited government was present in the charters of the colonies. Officers were chosen from the male settlers. The charter gave the power and authority to establish an assembly which would make laws, elect officers and govern.
Governments By 1733 the colonies had flourished to 13. Each colony reflected the ideals of limited and representative government. Governors served as the government’s executive. Some of the governors were elected others appointed. The majority of the governors were advised by councils. These councils served as the highest court.
Councils Councils: 12 property owners usually made up the council/advisors to the governor. Some councils served as the upper house of the assembly Most colonies had an assembly, made up of the colonists’ elected representatives. Colonies and representative assemblies served to limit the governors’ power.
Three Types of Colonies Royal: These colonies were the most common and belonged directly to the crown. (Virginia) Proprietary: These colonies were territories granted by the king to an individual (or small group of individuals) called a proprietor, and put under proprietor’s personal control. (Pennsylvania and Maryland) Corporate: These colonies were founded without direct authorization from the English government. England controlled military affairs and trade. The Crown exercised control on a minimal basis. (Connecticut and Rhode Island)