Presentation on theme: "Roots of American Democracy"— Presentation transcript:
1Roots of American Democracy Chapter 2 Section 1Our English Heritage
2Influences from England’s early government Many of the rights that American citizens enjoy today can be traced back to the political and legal traditions of England.When English people began settling here in the 1600’s they brought with them a history of limited and representative government
3Influences from England’s early government England was ruled by a Monarch (a king or queen), however the noble families had considerable power.The monarch gave them ownership of vast lands in exchange for their loyalty, tax payments, and promises of military support
4King John Inherited the throne in 1199 Treated the nobles harshly He was jealous of their wealth and influenceThe nobles rebelled in 1215 and forced the king to sign the Magna Carta
5Magna Carta Magna Carta is Latin for great charter This document protected the nobles privileges and upheld their authorityIt also granted rights to all land holdersRights that eventually came to apply to all English People
6Magna Carta Lead to equal treatment under the law Trial by one’s peers The magna carta was a contract that limited the power of the monarch by guaranteeing that no one would be above the law, not even the king or queen
7ParliamentThe parliament grew in power and size until eventually it split.Into the house of lords (nobles)And the house of Commons (citizens)Over time the parliament became more powerful than the monarchyThis lead to the Glorious Revolution
8The Glorious Revolution Parliament removed King James II from the throne and invited his daughter Mary and her husband William to rule insteadNo violenceFrom this time on no ruler would have more power than the legislature
9The English Bill of rights A document that stated that the monarch could not suspend parliaments lawsCould not create special courtsImpose taxes or raise an army with out parliaments consentThe bill of rights also guaranteedFree speechFree electionAnd right to a fair trial
10Common Law A system of laws based on precedent and customs Precedent – a ruling in an earlier case that was similar
11Bringing the English Heritage to America Even though the colonist were far from home they remained loyal subjects of EnglandThe keep a strong sense of the English political systemThey accepted common law and believed that the ruler was not above the law
12JamestownThe first permanent English settlement in North America was Jamestown 1607Was created by a charter from King JamesA charter is a written document granting land and the authority to set up colonial governments.
13The Virginia House of Burgesses In 1619 the colonist chose two representative from each county to meet with the governor and his council.These 22 men were called burgesses and they formed the House of BurgessesThe first representative legislature in English coloniesThis marked the beginning of self government in colonial America.
14PlymouthIn 1620 a new group of colonist known as Pilgrims arrived in AmericaThey build a settlement called Plymouth in MassachusettsThey drew up a written plan for government called the Mayflower CompactA compact is an agreement among a group of people.
15The Mayflower CompactThe compact stated that the government would make Just and equal laws for the general good of the colony.The signers pledged to obey those lawThis set up a Direct democracy in which all men would vote and the majority would rule
16Early Colonial Governments By English colonies stretched from Massachusetts in the north to Georgia in the southEach colony set up its own governmentEach had a governor and a legislature with elected representatives
17England takes a Hands off Approach As time passed the governments took on more and more power and responsibilityWhile the king and parliament were preoccupied with matter in EnglandAmerica soon grew used to making their own decisions.They built towns roads, and organized their own churches, schools, and hospitals.All with out the help of Great Britain.