Presentation on theme: "Roots of American Democracy Chapter 2 Section 1 Our English Heritage."— Presentation transcript:
Roots of American Democracy Chapter 2 Section 1 Our English Heritage
Influences from England’s early government Many of the rights that American citizens enjoy today can be traced back to the political and legal traditions of England. When English people began settling here in the 1600’s they brought with them a history of limited and representative government
Influences from England’s early government England was ruled by a Monarch (a king or queen), however the noble families had considerable power. The monarch gave them ownership of vast lands in exchange for their loyalty, tax payments, and promises of military support
King John Inherited the throne in 1199 Treated the nobles harshly He was jealous of their wealth and influence The nobles rebelled in 1215 and forced the king to sign the Magna Carta
Magna Carta Magna Carta is Latin for great charter This document protected the nobles privileges and upheld their authority It also granted rights to all land holders Rights that eventually came to apply to all English People
Magna Carta Lead to equal treatment under the law Trial by one’s peers The magna carta was a contract that limited the power of the monarch by guaranteeing that no one would be above the law, not even the king or queen
Parliament The parliament grew in power and size until eventually it split. Into the house of lords (nobles) And the house of Commons (citizens) Over time the parliament became more powerful than the monarchy This lead to the Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution Parliament removed King James II from the throne and invited his daughter Mary and her husband William to rule instead No violence From this time on no ruler would have more power than the legislature
The English Bill of rights A document that stated that the monarch could not suspend parliaments laws Could not create special courts Impose taxes or raise an army with out parliaments consent The bill of rights also guaranteed Free speech Free election And right to a fair trial
Common Law A system of laws based on precedent and customs Precedent – a ruling in an earlier case that was similar
Bringing the English Heritage to America Even though the colonist were far from home they remained loyal subjects of England The keep a strong sense of the English political system They accepted common law and believed that the ruler was not above the law
Jamestown The first permanent English settlement in North America was Jamestown 1607 Was created by a charter from King James A charter is a written document granting land and the authority to set up colonial governments.
The Virginia House of Burgesses In 1619 the colonist chose two representative from each county to meet with the governor and his council. These 22 men were called burgesses and they formed the House of Burgesses The first representative legislature in English colonies This marked the beginning of self government in colonial America.
Plymouth In 1620 a new group of colonist known as Pilgrims arrived in America They build a settlement called Plymouth in Massachusetts They drew up a written plan for government called the Mayflower Compact A compact is an agreement among a group of people.
The Mayflower Compact The compact stated that the government would make Just and equal laws for the general good of the colony. The signers pledged to obey those law This set up a Direct democracy in which all men would vote and the majority would rule
Early Colonial Governments By 1733 13 English colonies stretched from Massachusetts in the north to Georgia in the south Each colony set up its own government Each had a governor and a legislature with elected representatives
England takes a Hands off Approach As time passed the governments took on more and more power and responsibility While the king and parliament were preoccupied with matter in England America soon grew used to making their own decisions. They built towns roads, and organized their own churches, schools, and hospitals. All with out the help of Great Britain.