3 Section 1 Objectives1. Identify the political ideals that the English colonists brought with them to North America.2. Describe the major documents that limited the power of the English monarchs.3. Explain how the ideals of limited and representative government were evident in colonial governments.
4 MotivationImagine that as a class you are stranded on a deserted island. In addition to finding food sources, building shelter, and identifying potential hazards, consider what sort of government you would have on your island.Consider elements of the U.S. government that you would include and elements that you would change. Why might it be important to have a written constitution that outlines ideas.
5 An English HeritageThe influence of the English colonists can be found today in the British government.The constitution a basic set of laws and principles establishing the nation’s government.Two important British ideals strongly influenced the colonists in North America: limited government and representative government.
6 Limited GovernmentBefore the 1200s there were few limits on government in England. Example without a written constitution monarchs could tax people or seize property at will as well as give land to people who were loyal to them.1215-nobles forced King John to sign Magna Carta, or “Great Charter.” This document limited the monarchy’s power by helping establish the rule of law, which government leaders, even monarchs, must act according to set laws.
7 The Magna Carta laid the foundation for government that promotes the public good. Government which promotes the public good when it reflects the interests of society as a whole instead of the interests of the few or of one individual.
8 Activity Divide into small groups. Each group should have a least one member that has a musical background.Each group will write a song praising limited government.Songs should include ideas that served to shape early colonial governments and the modern U.S. governments.Each group will perform their song to the class.
9 Representative Government Representative governments has its heritage in a council of nobles and high religious officials that advised monarchs even before the signing of Magna Carta.Bicameral or two chamber legislature called Parliament which had evolved from the advisory council.Two houses, upper house-House of Lords and lower house-House of Commons as representatives of the people, the two houses worked to limit the power of the monarchs. Two documents that supported Parliament were the Petition of Right and the English Bill of Rights.
10 Petition of RightPetition of Right in 1628-limited the ability of the monarch to act on his or her sole authority. Monarchs could not imprison people illegally, force citizens to house in their homes, or establish military rule during times of peace. Before levying taxes Parliament had to approve. Again the Petition of Right was about promoting public good.
11 English Bill of RightsEstablished that the monarchy could not rule without consent of Parliament. Free parliamentary elections. The monarch could not maintain an army without parliamentary consent and Parliament should operate without royal interference. The English Bill of Rights protected the rights of citizens.
12 Colonial DevelopmentThe English colonists had begun to settle parts of North America. The first permanent English colony was established at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.Charters: an agreement with the English monarch which gave settlers the right to establish a colony. Limited government in the colonies were evident in most charters. Massachusetts charter, guaranteed elections. Officers were chosen from among the male settlers who were given the charter. The charter also gave power and authority to establish an assembly that would make laws, elect officers, and govern the colony.
13 GovernmentsGeorgia was added to the colonies in 1733, which brought the total to 13. Each colony had a system that reflected the ideals of limited and representative government. Colonial governors were sometimes appointed and others were elected. Most governors were advised by a council.There were three types of colonies royal, proprietary, and corporate.Royal colonies-most common type belonged directly to the crown. (Virginia)Proprietary colonies-territory was granted by the king to an individual or small group. The proprietor had personal control. (Pennsylvania and Maryland)Corporate colonies- were founded without any direct authorization from the English government. England controlled military affairs and trade. The Crown’s control was on a irregular basis. (Connecticut and Rhode Island)