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Our English Heritage.

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Presentation on theme: "Our English Heritage."— Presentation transcript:

1 Our English Heritage

2 Early English Influence
Early American ideas of democracy and government can be traced back to early English rule. The English brought with them a tradition of limited and representative government. England was ruled by a “monarch” for centuries. “Monarchy” is a form of government where the nation is ruled by a king or queen

3 Rule of King John ( )

4 Rule of King John ( ) The rule of King John of England met resistance from his noble families. In 1215, they rebelled in order to maintain their authority and privileges.

5 The “Magna Carta” (1215) “Magna Carta” (Latin for “Great Charter”) was signed by King John. It was a contract that limited the power of the monarch by guaranteeing that no one is above the law (even the king or queen) – RULE of LAW

6 The “Magna Carta” (1215) This document upheld the rights of landowners by: protecting the English nobles’ rights limiting the power of the Monarch – thus leads to a LIMITED MONARCHY!

7 Early English “Parliament”
King Henry III continued the idea of meeting with nobles and church officials during his rule. This group of advisors became known as “Parliament”.

8 Early English “Parliament”

9 Rule of King James II (1685-1688)

10 Rule of King James II (1685-1688)
By the 1680’s, the monarch, King James II, began to fight with Parliament over power. In 1688, King James was removed from power by Parliament - without violence.

11 The “Glorious Revolution” (1688)
William & Mary (the king’s daughter) were invited to take over the throne of England. That peaceful transfer of power is known as the “Glorious Revolution”.

12 “English Bill of Rights” (1689)
The new “English Bill of Rights” was drawn up at this time by Parliament. The English Bill of Rights - stated that the English monarch had no power over the Parliament and could never again control it’s actions.

13 “English Bill of Rights” (1689)
The new document guaranteed the following: 1. King could not suspend laws without Parliament’s approval. 2. King could not create special courts 3. King could not impose new taxes 4. King could not raise an army without consent of Parliament 5. Parliament would now be freely elected (by the people) 6. All citizens have the right to fair trial 7. Bans cruel and unusual punishment

14 Limited Government Documents like the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights created a tradition of limited government in England – the colonists would be influenced by these documents and the idea of limited government later on….

15 Great Britain Today GB has a parliamentary government that is run by a Prime Minister (executive) and Parliament (legislature). (The Prime Minister is part of the Parliament –the PM gets his authority from the Parliament) GB has a unitary (uni = 1) system of government. This is where all power lies with one central body (national government has all power and can decide if they wish to share or delegate any of their powers).

16 Early English Law Early English law was based on customs that developed into the basis for future laws. Court systems were created to enforce these new laws.

17 Early English Law Early judges ruled on cases based on “precedents”.
A “precedent” is a ruling in an earlier case that was similar. This created consistency among rulings.

18 “Common Law” “Common Law” is a system of law based on precedent and customs. Court decisions determine law, not regulations made by lawmakers. Today, American property, contract, and personal injury laws are based on this English idea of “common law”.

19 The English “American Colonies”

20 The “American Colonies”
When the American colonies, a group of settlements owned by a parent country elsewhere, were established in the mid 1600’s, they brought with them English traditions of government and law.

21 Jamestown, Virginia (1607)

22 Jamestown, Virginia (1607) “Jamestown” is the first English settlement in America. They were issued a “charter” I - a written document granting land and authority to set up a colonial government.

23 Arrival of the Pilgrims - Plymouth, Massachusetts (1620)

24 Plymouth, Massachusetts (1620)

25 “Mayflower Compact” (1620)
1620, the Pilgrims - members of the “Mayflower” voyage (seeking religious freedom) drew up a written plan for how their government would run. This agreement was the Mayflower Compact. A “compact” is an agreement or contract among a group of people.

26 “Mayflower Compact” (1620)
41 of the men aboard the Mayflower agreed to this compact. The “Mayflower Compact” established a tradition of direct democracy and this is the first example of SELF GOVERNMENT in the colonies.

27 English Colonies Grow The success of Jamestown and Plymouth led to the development of other colonies. By 1733, there were 13 English colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia. Each colony maintained its own colonial governments.

28 Colonial Governments Colonial governments each had an appointed governor and a legislature Only free adult males participated. As time moved on, the colonial governments did more and more on their own. The “British” government remained occupied at home…and was located very far away from the colonies

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