2 Influences from England’s Early Government The English brought with them a history of limited and representative government.England was ruled by a monarch, or king or queen, but eventually nobles held much of the power.
3 Influences from England’s Early Government Because of his ongoing war with France, King John needed money for his armies, but the loss of French territories made it difficult to raise it; a huge tax would be needed.King John increased scutege 11 times in his 17 years as King and the nobles had enough.
4 Influences from England’s Early Government The nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta (1215)Document upheld rights of landowners including equal treatment under the law and trial by one’s peers; also retained the writ of habeas corpusThis is important because it limited the power of the king or queen and stated that no one would be above the law (“rule of law”)
5 Influences from England’s Early Government In 1688, nobles and church officials who advised King Henry III developed into a legislature, law making body known as Parliament.In a power struggle, Parliament removed King James II from the throne. His daughter Mary and her husband were chosen to rule instead.In doing so, Parliament demonstrated that they were more powerful than the monarchy; from this point on, no ruler would have more power than the legislature
6 Influences from England’s Early Government Parliament drew up the English Bill of Rights, it required the monarch to get Parliament’s consent to:- impose taxes- raise an army- create special courtsIt guaranteed free elections, free speech, fair juries, no cruel and unusual punishments
7 Influences from England’s Early Government In its early days, England had no written laws; King Henry II (1154)People developed rules to live by which eventually came to have the force of law.Judges made rulings consistent with precedents, or rulings in earlier cases that were similarThis system of law based on custom and precedent is known as common law; U.S. laws are based on English common law. Important for consistent rulings
8 Bringing the English Heritage to America A colony is a group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere.English colonists in America remained loyal subjects of England. They accepted common law and expected the same rights they enjoyed in England.In the 1600’s and 1700’s England was starting to establish colonies in the Americas for economic purposes
9 Bringing the English Heritage to America The first permanent English settlement was in Jamestown, VA in 1607 by the Virginia Company, a group of merchants from London.The merchants were granted a charter, a document granting land and the authority to set up colonial governments. King James IAt first the colony was managed by a governor and council appointed by the Virginia Co.
10 Bringing the English Heritage to America In 1619, 2 representatives from each county were chosen by the people to meet with the governor and his council.They were called the House of Burgesses, the first representative assembly or legislature in the U.S.They had little power, but it was important because it was the beginning of self-government in colonial America
11 Bringing the English Heritage to America Before arriving in the New World, the Pilgrims set up rules to govern themselves by signing the Mayflower Compact in 1620.A compact is an agreement, or contract, among a group of people.Mayflower Compact was a written plan that set up the first direct democracy in the colony.Only adult members were able to vote, all men would vote; majority rule.
12 Bringing the English Heritage to America Because of the success of Jamestown and Plymouth, by 1733 colonies will stretch from Massachusetts to Georgia.The English colonies followed the examples of the Mayflower Compact and the House of BurgessesEach colony had a governor and elected legislature modeled after the English ParliamentMore power was taken by the colonial governments over time due to the preoccupation of the Parliament and Monarchy with France