2 Influences from English Government Many of the rights American citizens have today can be traced back to EnglandMagna CartaParliament-legislative bodyEnglish Bill of RightsCommon Law
3 Magna Carta Magna Carta means “Great Charter” King John of England mistreated the nobles (wealthy citizens)In 1215, they rebelled and forced him to sign the Magna CartaMagna Carta means “Great Charter”A charter is an agreement
5 Rights included equal treatment under the law & trial by one’s peers The Magna Carta guaranteed certain rights to the nobles and eventually these rights were guaranteed to all English citizensRights included equal treatment under the law & trial by one’s peers
6 Parliament-Legislative Body Henry III (came after King John) met with a group of advisers regularlyEventually, this group became a legislature known as ParliamentLegislature: law-making bodyIn mid-1600s, Parliament and King struggled over how much power King should have
7 Glorious Revolution: In 1688, Parliament removed King James II and replaced him with his daughter, Mary, and her husband, William.This proved that Parliament was stronger than King/Queen
9 English Bill of RightsIn 1689, Parliament wrote the English Bill of RightsStated thatMonarch could not suspend (stop) Parliament’s lawsMonarch could not create special courts, impose taxes, or raise an army without approval from ParliamentDeclared members of Parliament would be freely elected & guaranteed free speechGuaranteed every citizen the right to fair trial & banned cruel and unusual punishment
11 Common Law In its early days, England had no written laws Therefore, they developed certain customsCustom: a repeated way of handling situationsWhen judges were asked to decide a case, they looked at precedentPrecedent: ruling in previous similar caseCommon Law: a system of law based on precedent & customs
12 Common Law exampleIf someone were accused of trespassing, the judge would look at previous cases to see how others accused of trespassing had been sentenced. This would help the judge determine what type of punishment was fair and consistent.
13 Bringing English Heritage to America America had been settled by the English at Jamestown in 1607 (first permanent English settlement)Jamestown is an example of an English colonyColony: a group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhereColonists had strong ties with England and brought many of the traditions of that country to America
15 Virginia CharterThe Virginia Company of England was granted a charter to begin colonies in the state of Virginia in AmericaCharter: written document granting land and authority to set up colonial governmentsCharter gave colonists the same rights as English citizens, even though they lived in America
16 Virginia House of Burgesses In 1619, colonist chose two representatives from each county in the state to meet with the governor (appointed by England’s king/queen) and his councilRepresentatives were known as burgesses
17 These 22 men formed the House of Burgesses *** VA House of Burgesses was first representative assembly, or legislature, and marked the beginning of self-government in America!
18 Mayflower CompactIn 1620, Pilgrims arrived in America and establish Plymouth colony (in Massachusetts)While aboard their ship, the Mayflower, they wrote a plan for the government they would establish in Plymouth called the Mayflower CompactCompact: an agreement/contract among people
19 Mayflower Compact, continued Mayflower Compact stated that the government would:Make “just and equal laws…for the general good of the colony”**Established a tradition ofDirect Democracy in New England (Northeast United States)
21 Early Colonial Governments By 1773, 13 English colonies stretched from Massachusetts to GeorgiaEach colony set up its own government with:GovernorLegislatureEventually, the colonists learn to handle things on their own and began doubting the need for help from Great Britain