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Chapter 2 Summary of Historical Documents Section 1.

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1 Chapter 2 Summary of Historical Documents Section 1

2 Influences from England’s Early Government The English brought with them a history of limited and representative government. England was ruled by a MONARCH – a king or queen, but nobles held much power.

3 1.Nobles wanted fair & equal treatment under the law. So they forced King John to sign the

4 (1) Magna Carta – June 15, 1215 in Runneymead England A.Written by English Lords/Nobles It limited the power of the king or queen

5 B. Used as a basis for the Bill of Rights. 1. Granted equal treatment for citizens accused of a crime.

6 a.Right to confront your accuser b. Right to trial by jury

7 King Henry II followed King John in 1216.

8 The nobles and church officials who advised the King, Henry II, developed into a LEGISLATURE – a lawmaking body- known as PARLIAMENT.

9 In 1688, in a power struggle, Parliament removed King James II from the throne. This peaceful transfer of power was the Glorious Revolution.

10 From then on, no ruler would have more power than the legislature.

11 2. English Bill of Rights – 1689 in Westminster, England. A. Written by Parliament (lawmaking body of England.

12 B. Stated that the power of the monarch (king/queen) should be limited.

13 C. Included many liberties found in the Constitution & Bill of Rights 1. Free elections

14 2. Protection from cruel and unusual punishment and excessive bail.

15 3. Trial by Jury 4. Free Speech

16 In its early days, England had no written laws. People developed rules to live by which came to have the force of law.

17 Judges made rulings consistent with PRECEDENTS, or rulings in earlier cases. The system of law based on precedent and custom is known as common law.

18 Question: What were some rights guaranteed by the English Bill of Rights?

19 Bringing the English Heritage to America A colony is a group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere.

20 English colonists in America remained loyal subjects of England. They accepted English law and expected the same rights they enjoyed in England.

21 3.The Virginia Company’s Charter A charter is a written document granting land and the authority to set up colonial governments.

22 The Virginia Company’s Charter was granted by King James I to a group of merchants from London.

23 The Virginia Company’s charter promised the colonists of Jamestown the same liberties as in England.

24 These representatives formed the House of Burgesses, the first legislature in the colonies. It marked the beginning of self-government in the colonies.

25 (4). Mayflower Compact A compact is an agreement, or contract, among a group of people.

26 Before arriving in Plymouth, the Pilgrims drew up the Mayflower Compact, November 11, 1620 in what is now Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

27 A. Written by the Pilgrims on board the Mayflower.

28 Under this contract all men would vote, the majority would rule. This set up a direct democracy in the colony.

29 B. Established “rule by the people” (popular sovereignty) which later became known as “social contract” theory of government.

30 C. Later used to justify American independence from Great Britain – government should be formed by the people.

31 Early Colonial Governments Later English colonies along the east coast followed the examples of the Mayflower Compact and the House of Burgesses.

32 Each colony had a governor and elected legislature, often modeled after Parliament. The colonial governments took on more power over time, as the king and Parliament were preoccupied at home.

33 The colonies grew used to making their own decisions.

34 Question: What examples did new colonies follow in setting up their governments?

35 They followed the examples from the Mayflower Compact and the House of Burgesses by establishing self rule.

36 Matching A. Monarch B. Colony C. Legislature D. Common law E. precedent

37 Explain: What is the historical significance of Virginia’s House of Burgesses?

38 It marked the beginning of colonial self-government.

39 Summarize: What did the Mayflower Compact do?

40 It established a system of direct democracy- all men could vote and the majority ruled. It also established the concept of popular sovereignty or rule by the people.

41 Drawing conclusions: Explain the significance of the Glorious Revolution.

42 It changed the idea of government in England: no ruler would have more power than the Parliament.

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