6Congressional Decisions What type and how many new courts should be added?What should they do if federal court decisions conflicted with state laws?
7Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 Gave the Supreme Court 6 members.One Chief Justice, John Jay, and 5 other JusticesIt provided for less powerful federal courtsState law could not violate Supreme Court decisions!
8Decisions! Decisions!What do you do when you have a hard decision to make and are not sure if you will make a good one?
9Assembling a CabinetCongress was given the task of creating departments to help the President make decisions and he could appoint heads of departmentsCabinet: a group of advisors to the President (the heads of each department)
104 Departments Were Created Washington’s Cabinet4 Departments Were CreatedSecretary of War:Henry KnoxSecretary of Treasury: Alexander HamiltonSecretary of State: Thomas JeffersonAttorney General: Edmund RandolphWhat does each do?
11Do you know who the current department heads are?
12Current Cabinet Leaders Secretary of Defense:Robert M. GatesSecretary of Treasury:Timothy GeithnerSecretary of State:Hillary ClintonAttorney General:Eric Holder
13Responsibilities of the Cabinet Cabinets members are basically the specialists in their area that offer adviceto the President.
14Another Precedent or Tradition Can you think of another tradition that Washington established when he left office?Can you think of any President that broke that tradition?
15Changing the Constitution During the Great Depression and WWII, Franklin D. Roosevelt served 4 terms in office.In the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution was passed limiting Presidents to 2 terms in office or 10 years totalThis Amendment checks the President’s power!
16Identify and explain the two precedents that were started under Washington’s presidency?
179.1 Cont’d Key Question: What financial problems faced the new nation? List Hamilton’s solutions for the nation’s finances.
18War Debts Most urgent issue Owed Millions to France, Spain & NetherlandsOwed Private Citizens and soldiers $$$By 1789, $52 million in debtNeeded to repay the $$$ to gain the respect of citizens and foreign countries
19Hamilton’s Political Views Believed in a strong central governmentNational government should be stronger than state governmentsShould encourage business and industry, support wealthy merchants and manufacturers
20Hamilton’s Proposals 1790Pay off ALL war debts, including those of the statesSouthern states are upset since they had already started to pay their debtsAgree to relocated the capital to the South, Washington D.C., to gain supportRaise government revenue $$$$$Create a national bank
21Building a Strong Government Use tariffs, taxes on imports, to…Raise $$$$ for the governmentEncourage growth of national businessEncourage people to buy AmericanCreate a national BankKeep money safeMake loans to businesses and governmentIssue paper $$$
22Strict Constructionists! Hamilton’s OpponentsJefferson and Madison opposed the creation of a national bankThought it would encourage an unhealthy relationship between the government and wealthy business interestsThe Constitution did not provide for it! (It was not a power delegated to the national government, but reserved for the states!)Strict Constructionists!
23Strict Constructionists Believed in a literal or strict interpretation of the ConstitutionSince the power to create a national government is NOT spelled out, or delegated to, the national government in the Constitutio, it is a power reserved to the states.
24Loose Constructionists Hamilton’s supporters said the …“Elastic Clause,”Article 1, Section 8, Number 18, gave Congress the power to do whatever is“Necessary and Proper”
25WashingtonGeorge Washington helps get the bank passed by backing Hamilton and the Bank1791 the Bank of the United States (BUS) was establishedHamilton’s and Jefferson’s opposing viewpoints laid the groundwork for political parties!
26Honors Bill of Rights Quiz tomorrow! Be able to list the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution in order! You must earn a perfect score!Chapter 8 Essay make-up tomorrow!Identify and explain two arguments of the Anti-Federalists.Identify two weaknesses under the Articles of Confederation and explain why each was a weakness.
27How did Hamilton want to raise money for the government to pay off the debt owed? How would this encourage people to buy American?
28What were the arguments for and against the creation of a national bank? Who were the arguments between?
309.2 Challenges to the New Government Identify how two crises at home revealed the power of the national government?
31Crises at HomeClaims to the Trans-Appalachian West: Britain Spain & Native AmericansFarmer rebellion in the backcountry
32Problems at HomeSpain, Britain and Native Americans all claimed the Trans-Appalachian WestStrong resistance from Native-Americans in the Northwest Territory, supported by the BritishAmerican troops lost to Native-Americans, led by Little Turtle in 1790 and 1791
33What does Little Turtle mean by this quote? “We have beaten the enemy twice under separate commanders…The Americans are now led by a Chief (Wayne) who never sleeps…We have never been able to surprise him…It would be prudent (wise) to listen to his offers of peace.”-Little Turtle, quoted inThe Life and Times of Little TurtleWhat does Little Turtle mean by this quote?
34Battle of Fallen Timbers General “Mad” Anthony Wayne led 1,000 troops vs. 2,000 Native Americans in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in Toledo, Ohio.Native Americans lost and left when the British refuse to help!Treaty of Greenville 1795: Native Americans cede, or give up, their claims to much of Ohio and the Northwest Territory, including ports and outposts
35Backcountry Trouble! Conflict over a new tax on whiskey Farmers in the backcountry hurt the mostWhiskey more profitable than corn, used like $$$ in tradeFarmers from PA to GA resist the tax
36Whiskey Rebellion Summer of 1794, western PA farmers rebel The federal government shows its strength and sent 13,000 soldiers and the farmers flee
37“Such a resistance is treason against society, against liberty, against everything that ought to be dear to a free, enlightened, and prudent people. To tolerate it were to abandon your most precious interests. Not to subdue it were to tolerate it.”-Alexander Hamilton,The Works of Alexander HamiltonWhat did Hamilton mean by this quote?
38Farmers were not upset only about the tax on whiskey, but about their underrepresentation in state legislatures!
39Identify 2 problems at home that Washington faced and explain how he dealt with each of them.
40Problems Abroad Key Question: Why did events in Europe create problems for America?Analyze:Describe how crises in Europe created challenges for the new American government.
42Britain and France The U.S. was tied to Britain by TRADE France and the U.S. were allies with the treaty of If France goes to war, the U.S. does, too.
43French Revolution 1789 Liberty! Equality! The French, inspired by the American Revolution, revolt against their own government!How do you think most Americans reacted?Imagine being a ruling monarch during this time period. How would you have felt about this revolution, following on the heels of the American Revolution?
45French Revolution Cont’d Americans support it at first, until it turns so bloody!Other European monarchs are fearful, war declared on Britain, Holland and Spain by FranceFrance & Britain at WarFrance had backed the Americans
46Jefferson (pro French) vs. Hamilton (pro British) Washington declares neutrality in 1793, Congress passed law in supportJefferson attacked for his support of France, tired of Washington supporting Hamilton, resignsHard to stay neutral, British seizing American cargo on the seas from the French West Indies and impressing American sailors
47Jay’s Treaty 1794 With Great Britain John Jay was sent to England for talksBritish agree to leave Ohio Valley and pay for damages to shippingBritish Caribbean trade not opened to Americans and British could continue fur trade on our side of the Canadian borderHighly criticized by Americans
48Pinckney’s Treaty 1795 With Spain Americans travel freely on Mississippi River, important for trade!U.S. goods could be stored at New OrleansSpain accepted the 31st parallel as the northern boundary of Florida and southern boundary of the U.S.
49Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty Added security to the U.S.Explain how both of the treaties helped secure the United States and protected their interests.
50TreatyTreaty (def.): Agreement, especially one between nations, signed and approved by each nation.Impressment (def.): Forcing men into military service
52Mapwork Identify the following on your map: Mississippi River New OrleansGulf of MexicoFloridaBoundary between Spanish Florida and the U.S.Caribbean
53Washington’s Farewell Address Analyze:Explain Washington’s major concerns as he left office.
54Washington warned against the dangers of political parties and sectionalism (being concerned with your area of the nation over national interests)He advised against permanent alliances with other nations
55Political PartiesPolitical Parties promote the interests of their party and back candidates to run for officeDemocratic-Republicans vs. FederalistsWho mostly supported each side?
56John Adams 2nd President Key Question:What issues divided Americans during Adams’ presidency?
57Adams vs. Jefferson Electoral Vote: Adams: 71 Jefferson: 68 Adams becomes PresidentJefferson Vice-PresidentWhat problems could exist with members of different parties holding the office of President and Vice-President?
58France Some Federalists want war with France! Adams wants peace Adams sends 3 representatives to go to France for peace negotiations
59XYZ AffairThe French Foreign Minister Talleyrand refuses to speak with the U.S. diplomats without first agreeing to loan France $10 million and paying a bribe of $250,000 and sent 3 men, XYZ to tell them!
60not one cent for tribute!” Outrage!!!“Millions for defense,not one cent for tribute!”U.S. cancels its treaties with FranceAllowed U.S. ships to seize French shipsCongress sets aside $$$ to expand the armed forces & prepare for war!
61French Conflict Adams and the Federalists gain support Democratic-Republican newspapers criticized AdamsAdams upset with D-R newspapers and new immigrants sympathetic to their party
62Alien and Sedition Acts Adams supports passage by CongressTargeted aliens, changing the wait period to become a U.S. citizen from 5 to 14 yearsThe president could deport any alien considered dangerousThe president could round up and imprison enemy aliens during wartime
63Sedition Bill Threatened to fine and imprison anyone who “shall write, print, utter or publish…scandalous and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States, or either House of the Congress…or the President…with intent to defame…or to bring them…into contempt or disrepute: or to excite agaisnt them…the hatred of the good people of the United States.”
64Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions By Jefferson and Madison to fight the Alien and Sedition ActsStates Rights: States could nullify, or cancel, any act of Congress they consider unconstitutional
65What Happened?Naturalization Act was repealed in 1802 and the other three acts, enacted a two year expiration date were allowed to lapse in 1800
66Convention of 1800: Peace With France Stopped all naval attacks between the two nationsFrance:Accepts U.S. neutrality rights at seaDischarged the U.S. from its obligations under the alliance formed during the American RevolutionU.S. gives France a most-favored nation status as a trade partner
67Foreign PolicyForeign Policy (def.): relations with the governments of other governments.How would you describe the foreign policy of Washington?Adams?
68PowersDelegated Powers (def.): Powers clearly given to the national government by the U.S. Constitution.Reserved Powers (def.): Powers NOT clearly given to the national government by the U.S. Constitution or denied to the states, belong to the states
69Amendment 10, 1791“the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”