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Bellwork Define tradition. Identify 3 traditions.

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Presentation on theme: "Bellwork Define tradition. Identify 3 traditions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bellwork Define tradition. Identify 3 traditions

2 Tradition or Precedent

3 9.1 Washington’s Presidency I can… I can… identify and explain the traditions, or precedents established by George Washington. identify and explain the traditions, or precedents established by George Washington. Key Question: How did Washington’s presidency shape new political traditions?

4 Washington’s Election Washington was elected President unanimously in 1789 Washington was elected President unanimously in 1789 Travels to the capital, New York City, to be inaugurated Travels to the capital, New York City, to be inaugurated Runner-up, John Adams, becomes Vice-President Runner-up, John Adams, becomes Vice-President

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6 Congressional Decisions What type and how many new courts should be added? What type and how many new courts should be added? What should they do if federal court decisions conflicted with state laws? What should they do if federal court decisions conflicted with state laws?

7 Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 Gave the Supreme Court 6 members. Gave the Supreme Court 6 members. One Chief Justice, John Jay, and 5 other Justices One Chief Justice, John Jay, and 5 other Justices It provided for less powerful federal courts It provided for less powerful federal courts State law could not violate Supreme Court decisions! State law could not violate Supreme Court decisions!

8 Decisions! Decisions! What do you do when you have a hard decision to make and are not sure if you will make a good one?

9 Assembling a Cabinet Congress was given the task of creating departments to help the President make decisions and he could appoint heads of departments Congress was given the task of creating departments to help the President make decisions and he could appoint heads of departments Cabinet: a group of advisors to the President (the heads of each department) Cabinet: a group of advisors to the President (the heads of each department)

10 Washington’s Cabinet 4 Departments Were Created Secretary of War: Secretary of War: Henry Knox Henry Knox Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson Attorney General: Edmund Randolph Attorney General: Edmund Randolph What does each do?

11 Do you know who the current department heads are?

12 Current Cabinet Leaders Secretary of Defense: Secretary of Defense: Robert M. Gates Secretary of Treasury: Secretary of Treasury: Timothy Geithner Secretary of State: Secretary of State: Hillary Clinton Attorney General: Attorney General: Eric Holder Eric Holder

13 Responsibilities of the Cabinet Cabinets members are basically the specialists in their area that offer advice to the President.

14 Another Precedent or Tradition 1. Can you think of another tradition that Washington established when he left office? 2. Can you think of any President that broke that tradition?

15 Changing the Constitution During the Great Depression and WWII, Franklin D. Roosevelt served 4 terms in office. During the Great Depression and WWII, Franklin D. Roosevelt served 4 terms in office. In 1951 the 22 nd Amendment to the Constitution was passed limiting Presidents to 2 terms in office or 10 years total In 1951 the 22 nd Amendment to the Constitution was passed limiting Presidents to 2 terms in office or 10 years total This Amendment checks the President’s power! This Amendment checks the President’s power!

16 Identify and explain the two precedents that were started under Washington’s presidency? Identify and explain the two precedents that were started under Washington’s presidency?

17 9.1 Cont’d Key Question: What financial problems faced the new nation? List Hamilton’s solutions for the nation’s finances.

18 War Debts Most urgent issue Most urgent issue Owed Millions to France, Spain & Netherlands Owed Millions to France, Spain & Netherlands Owed Private Citizens and soldiers $$$ Owed Private Citizens and soldiers $$$ By 1789, $52 million in debt By 1789, $52 million in debt Needed to repay the $$$ to gain the respect of citizens and foreign countries Needed to repay the $$$ to gain the respect of citizens and foreign countries

19 Hamilton’s Political Views Believed in a strong central government Believed in a strong central government National government should be stronger than state governments National government should be stronger than state governments Should encourage business and industry, support wealthy merchants and manufacturers Should encourage business and industry, support wealthy merchants and manufacturers

20 Hamilton’s Proposals 1790 Pay off ALL war debts, including those of the states Pay off ALL war debts, including those of the states Southern states are upset since they had already started to pay their debts Southern states are upset since they had already started to pay their debts Agree to relocated the capital to the South, Washington D.C., to gain support Agree to relocated the capital to the South, Washington D.C., to gain support Raise government revenue $$$$$ Raise government revenue $$$$$ Create a national bank Create a national bank

21 Building a Strong Government Use tariffs, taxes on imports, to… Use tariffs, taxes on imports, to… Raise $$$$ for the government Raise $$$$ for the government Encourage growth of national business Encourage growth of national business Encourage people to buy American Encourage people to buy American Create a national Bank Create a national Bank Keep money safe Keep money safe Make loans to businesses and government Make loans to businesses and government Issue paper $$$ Issue paper $$$

22 Hamilton’s Opponents Jefferson and Madison opposed the creation of a national bank Jefferson and Madison opposed the creation of a national bank Thought it would encourage an unhealthy relationship between the government and wealthy business interests Thought it would encourage an unhealthy relationship between the government and wealthy business interests The Constitution did not provide for it! (It was not a power delegated to the national government, but reserved for the states!) The Constitution did not provide for it! (It was not a power delegated to the national government, but reserved for the states!) Strict Constructionists!

23 Strict Constructionists Believed in a literal or strict interpretation of the Constitution Believed in a literal or strict interpretation of the Constitution Since the power to create a national government is NOT spelled out, or delegated to, the national government in the Constitutio, it is a power reserved to the states. Since the power to create a national government is NOT spelled out, or delegated to, the national government in the Constitutio, it is a power reserved to the states.

24 Loose Constructionists Hamilton’s supporters said the … “Elastic Clause,” Article 1, Section 8, Number 18, gave Congress the power to do whatever is “Necessary and Proper”

25 Washington George Washington helps get the bank passed by backing Hamilton and the Bank George Washington helps get the bank passed by backing Hamilton and the Bank 1791 the Bank of the United States (BUS) was established 1791 the Bank of the United States (BUS) was established Hamilton’s and Jefferson’s opposing viewpoints laid the groundwork for political parties! Hamilton’s and Jefferson’s opposing viewpoints laid the groundwork for political parties!

26 Honors Honors Bill of Rights Quiz tomorrow! Bill of Rights Quiz tomorrow! Be able to list the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution in order! You must earn a perfect score! Be able to list the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution in order! You must earn a perfect score! Chapter 8 Essay make-up tomorrow! Chapter 8 Essay make-up tomorrow! Identify and explain two arguments of the Anti- Federalists. Identify and explain two arguments of the Anti- Federalists. Identify two weaknesses under the Articles of Confederation and explain why each was a weakness. Identify two weaknesses under the Articles of Confederation and explain why each was a weakness.

27 How did Hamilton want to raise money for the government to pay off the debt owed? How did Hamilton want to raise money for the government to pay off the debt owed? How would this encourage people to buy American? How would this encourage people to buy American?

28 What were the arguments for and against the creation of a national bank? What were the arguments for and against the creation of a national bank? Who were the arguments between? Who were the arguments between?

29 What led to the formation of political parties? What led to the formation of political parties?

30 9.2 Challenges to the New Government Identify how two crises at home revealed the power of the national government? Identify how two crises at home revealed the power of the national government?

31 Crises at Home Claims to the Trans-Appalachian West: Britain Spain & Native Americans Claims to the Trans-Appalachian West: Britain Spain & Native Americans Farmer rebellion in the backcountry Farmer rebellion in the backcountry

32 Problems at Home Spain, Britain and Native Americans all claimed the Trans-Appalachian West Spain, Britain and Native Americans all claimed the Trans-Appalachian West Strong resistance from Native-Americans in the Northwest Territory, supported by the British Strong resistance from Native-Americans in the Northwest Territory, supported by the British American troops lost to Native-Americans, led by Little Turtle in 1790 and 1791 American troops lost to Native-Americans, led by Little Turtle in 1790 and 1791

33 “We have beaten the enemy twice under separate commanders…The Americans are now led by a Chief (Wayne) who never sleeps…We have never been able to surprise him…It would be prudent (wise) to listen to his offers of peace.” “We have beaten the enemy twice under separate commanders…The Americans are now led by a Chief (Wayne) who never sleeps…We have never been able to surprise him…It would be prudent (wise) to listen to his offers of peace.” -Little Turtle, quoted in The Life and Times of Little Turtle What does Little Turtle mean by this quote?

34 Battle of Fallen Timbers General “Mad” Anthony Wayne led 1,000 troops vs. 2,000 Native Americans in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in Toledo, Ohio. General “Mad” Anthony Wayne led 1,000 troops vs. 2,000 Native Americans in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in Toledo, Ohio. Native Americans lost and left when the British refuse to help! Native Americans lost and left when the British refuse to help! Treaty of Greenville 1795: Native Americans cede, or give up, their claims to much of Ohio and the Northwest Territory, including ports and outposts Treaty of Greenville 1795: Native Americans cede, or give up, their claims to much of Ohio and the Northwest Territory, including ports and outposts

35 Backcountry Trouble! Conflict over a new tax on whiskey Conflict over a new tax on whiskey Farmers in the backcountry hurt the most Farmers in the backcountry hurt the most Whiskey more profitable than corn, used like $$$ in trade Whiskey more profitable than corn, used like $$$ in trade Farmers from PA to GA resist the tax Farmers from PA to GA resist the tax

36 Whiskey Rebellion Summer of 1794, western PA farmers rebel Summer of 1794, western PA farmers rebel The federal government shows its strength and sent 13,000 soldiers and the farmers flee The federal government shows its strength and sent 13,000 soldiers and the farmers flee

37 “Such a resistance is treason against society, against liberty, against everything that ought to be dear to a free, enlightened, and prudent people. To tolerate it were to abandon your most precious interests. Not to subdue it were to tolerate it.”- Alexander Hamilton, The Works of Alexander Hamilton What did Hamilton mean by this quote?

38 Farmers were not upset only about the tax on whiskey, but about their underrepresentation in state legislatures!

39 Identify 2 problems at home that Washington faced and explain how he dealt with each of them.

40 Problems Abroad Key Question: Why did events in Europe create problems for America? Why did events in Europe create problems for America?Analyze: Describe how crises in Europe created challenges for the new American government. Describe how crises in Europe created challenges for the new American government.

41 Problems at Home

42 Britain and France The U.S. was tied to Britain by TRADE The U.S. was tied to Britain by TRADE France and the U.S. were allies with the treaty of If France goes to war, the U.S. does, too. France and the U.S. were allies with the treaty of If France goes to war, the U.S. does, too.

43 French Revolution 1789 Liberty! Equality! Liberty! Equality! The French, inspired by the American Revolution, revolt against their own government! The French, inspired by the American Revolution, revolt against their own government! How do you think most Americans reacted? How do you think most Americans reacted? Imagine being a ruling monarch during this time period. How would you have felt about this revolution, following on the heels of the American Revolution? Imagine being a ruling monarch during this time period. How would you have felt about this revolution, following on the heels of the American Revolution?

44 Problems in Europe

45 French Revolution Cont’d Americans support it at first, until it turns so bloody! Americans support it at first, until it turns so bloody! Other European monarchs are fearful, war declared on Britain, Holland and Spain by France Other European monarchs are fearful, war declared on Britain, Holland and Spain by France France & Britain at War France & Britain at War France had backed the Americans France had backed the Americans

46 Jefferson (pro French) vs. Hamilton (pro British) Washington declares neutrality in 1793, Congress passed law in support Washington declares neutrality in 1793, Congress passed law in support Jefferson attacked for his support of France, tired of Washington supporting Hamilton, resigns Jefferson attacked for his support of France, tired of Washington supporting Hamilton, resigns Hard to stay neutral, British seizing American cargo on the seas from the French West Indies and impressing American sailors Hard to stay neutral, British seizing American cargo on the seas from the French West Indies and impressing American sailors

47 Jay’s Treaty 1794 With Great Britain John Jay was sent to England for talks John Jay was sent to England for talks British agree to leave Ohio Valley and pay for damages to shipping British agree to leave Ohio Valley and pay for damages to shipping British Caribbean trade not opened to Americans and British could continue fur trade on our side of the Canadian border British Caribbean trade not opened to Americans and British could continue fur trade on our side of the Canadian border Highly criticized by Americans Highly criticized by Americans

48 Pinckney’s Treaty 1795 With Spain Americans travel freely on Mississippi River, important for trade! Americans travel freely on Mississippi River, important for trade! U.S. goods could be stored at New Orleans U.S. goods could be stored at New Orleans Spain accepted the 31 st parallel as the northern boundary of Florida and southern boundary of the U.S. Spain accepted the 31 st parallel as the northern boundary of Florida and southern boundary of the U.S.

49 Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty Added security to the U.S. Added security to the U.S. Explain how both of the treaties helped secure the United States and protected their interests.

50 Treaty Treaty (def.): Agreement, especially one between nations, signed and approved by each nation. Treaty (def.): Agreement, especially one between nations, signed and approved by each nation. Impressment (def.): Forcing men into military service Impressment (def.): Forcing men into military service

51 Handling Problems Abroad

52 Mapwork Identify the following on your map: Mississippi River New Orleans Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Mexico Florida Florida Boundary between Spanish Florida and the U.S. Boundary between Spanish Florida and the U.S. Caribbean Caribbean

53 Washington’s Farewell Address Analyze: Explain Washington’s major concerns as he left office.

54 Washington warned against the dangers of political parties and sectionalism (being concerned with your area of the nation over national interests) Washington warned against the dangers of political parties and sectionalism (being concerned with your area of the nation over national interests) He advised against permanent alliances with other nations He advised against permanent alliances with other nations

55 Political Parties Political Parties promote the interests of their party and back candidates to run for office Political Parties promote the interests of their party and back candidates to run for office Democratic-Republicans vs. Federalists Democratic-Republicans vs. Federalists Who mostly supported each side? Who mostly supported each side?

56 John Adams 2 nd President Key Question: Key Question: What issues divided Americans during Adams’ presidency?

57 Adams vs. Jefferson Electoral Vote: Electoral Vote: Adams: 71 Adams: 71 Jefferson: 68 Jefferson: 68 Adams becomes President Adams becomes President Jefferson Vice-President Jefferson Vice-President What problems could exist with members of different parties holding the office of President and Vice- President? What problems could exist with members of different parties holding the office of President and Vice- President?

58 France Some Federalists want war with France! Some Federalists want war with France! Adams wants peace Adams wants peace Adams sends 3 representatives to go to France for peace negotiations Adams sends 3 representatives to go to France for peace negotiations

59 XYZ Affair The French Foreign Minister Talleyrand refuses to speak with the U.S. diplomats without first agreeing to loan France $10 million and paying a bribe of $250,000 and sent 3 men, XYZ to tell them!

60 Outrage!!! “Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute!” not one cent for tribute!” U.S. cancels its treaties with France U.S. cancels its treaties with France Allowed U.S. ships to seize French ships Allowed U.S. ships to seize French ships Congress sets aside $$$ to expand the armed forces & prepare for war! Congress sets aside $$$ to expand the armed forces & prepare for war!

61 French Conflict Adams and the Federalists gain support Adams and the Federalists gain support Democratic-Republican newspapers criticized Adams Democratic-Republican newspapers criticized Adams Adams upset with D-R newspapers and new immigrants sympathetic to their party Adams upset with D-R newspapers and new immigrants sympathetic to their party

62 Alien and Sedition Acts Adams supports passage by Congress Targeted aliens, changing the wait period to become a U.S. citizen from 5 to 14 years Targeted aliens, changing the wait period to become a U.S. citizen from 5 to 14 years The president could deport any alien considered dangerous The president could deport any alien considered dangerous The president could round up and imprison enemy aliens during wartime The president could round up and imprison enemy aliens during wartime

63 Sedition Bill Threatened to fine and imprison anyone who “shall write, print, utter or publish…scandalous and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States, or either House of the Congress…or the President…with intent to defame…or to bring them…into contempt or disrepute: or to excite agaisnt them…the hatred of the good people of the United States.”

64 Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions By Jefferson and Madison to fight the Alien and Sedition Acts By Jefferson and Madison to fight the Alien and Sedition Acts States Rights: States could nullify, or cancel, any act of Congress they consider unconstitutional States Rights: States could nullify, or cancel, any act of Congress they consider unconstitutional

65 What Happened? Naturalization Act was repealed in 1802 and the other three acts, enacted a two year expiration date were allowed to lapse in 1800

66 Convention of 1800: Peace With France Stopped all naval attacks between the two nations Stopped all naval attacks between the two nations France: France: Accepts U.S. neutrality rights at sea Accepts U.S. neutrality rights at sea Discharged the U.S. from its obligations under the alliance formed during the American Revolution Discharged the U.S. from its obligations under the alliance formed during the American Revolution U.S. gives France a most-favored nation status as a trade partner U.S. gives France a most-favored nation status as a trade partner

67 Foreign Policy Foreign Policy (def.): relations with the governments of other governments. How would you describe the foreign policy of Washington? Adams?

68 Powers Delegated Powers (def.): Powers clearly given to the national government by the U.S. Constitution. Delegated Powers (def.): Powers clearly given to the national government by the U.S. Constitution. Reserved Powers (def.): Powers NOT clearly given to the national government by the U.S. Constitution or denied to the states, belong to the states Reserved Powers (def.): Powers NOT clearly given to the national government by the U.S. Constitution or denied to the states, belong to the states

69 Amendment 10, 1791 “the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”

70 Elastic Clause

71 Chapter 8 Essay 1. Identify and explain two arguments of the Anti- Federalists. 2. Identify two weaknesses under the Articles of Confederation and explain why each was a weakness.


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