2In this Unit… Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic Chapter 10: The Jefferson EraChapter 11: National and Regional Growth
3Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic Lesson 1: Washington’s Presidency
4Essential QuestionWhat traditions and tensions first appeared in the early years of the new country?
5Vocabulary John Jay: first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Cabinet: group of executive department heads that serve as the president’s chief advisorsInaugurate: to formally swear in or induct into officePrecedent: an example that becomes standard practiceTariff: tax on imported goods
6What were some challenges faced by George Washington? Key QuestionWhat were some challenges faced by George Washington?
7Washington’s New Government First presidential election was held in 1789Washington was electedThe runner-up John Adams became vice-presidentInauguration took place in New York City, the capitalEvery action set a precedent“His Excellency” vs. “Mr. President”
8Assembling a CabinetNeeded to create departments to help run the countryStateTreasuryWarJusticePostal ServiceHeads of these departments are chosen by presidentCalled the cabinet
9The Nation’s Finances WAR DEBTS HAMILTON’S PROPOSALS Other countries: Spain, Netherlands, FranceCitizensSoldiersBy $52 millionOther countries wouldn’t do business with a country who did not pay off debtsHAMILTON’S PROPOSALSPay off all war debtRaise government income and profitsCreate a national bank
10Building a Strong Government TARIFFSTaxes on importsEncourages national businessIncreased incomeNATIONAL BANKKept money in a safe locationCould give loansCould issue money
11What were some challenges faced by George Washington? Key QuestionWhat were some challenges faced by George Washington?
12Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic Lesson 2: Challenges to the New Government
13VocabularyBattle of Fallen Timbers: 1794 battle between Native Americans and American forcesTreaty of Greenville: 1795 treaty in which 12 Native American tribes ceded control of much of Ohio and Indiana to the U.S. governmentWhiskey Rebellion: 1794 protest against the government’s tax on whiskey by backcountry farmersJay’s Treaty: Agreement that ended the dispute with Britain over American shipping during the French RevolutionPinckney’s Treaty: 1795 treaty with Spain allowing U.S. commercial use of the Mississippi River
14How did Washington establish authority at home and avoid wars abroad? Key QuestionHow did Washington establish authority at home and avoid wars abroad?
15Problems at Home Nation needed peace Trouble between Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi RiverSpain, Britain, the U.S. and Native Americans all claimed landBattles in the Northwest TerritoryAugust 20, 17942,000 Native Americans meet 1,000 American troopsIn OhioNative Americans were defeatedCalled the Battle of Fallen TimbersNative Americans knew they had lost the Northwest Territory12 troops signed the Treaty of Greenville that gave up their land to the U.S.
16Problems at Home Washington put a tax on whiskey Farmers were furious 1794 Whiskey Rebellion occurredPennsylvania13,000 soldiers put down the rebellionRebels fledProved Washington could enforce laws
17Problems Abroad America was still very involved with Europe Events in Europe had effects in AmericaFRENCH REVOLUTION1789Financial problems led to rebellionsPeople wanted freedom and equality like AmericaExecuted the king and queenBritain, Holland, and Spain joined the war against the revolutionWhat should the U.S. do?France had helped during our revolutionBritain was America’s best trading partnerU.S. remained neutralBritain began to seize cargo from American ships
18Problems Abroad Jay’s Treaty Pinckney’s Treaty Britain agreed to pay damages from cargo shipsBritain left the Ohio River Valley but still kept its fur trade in AmericaMany frontier settlers were angryPinckney’s TreatyAmericans could use Mississippi RiverU.S. goods could be stored in New OrleansU.S. and Spain agreed on a border for FloridaAmericans began to feel safer because issues abroad were being taken care of
19How did Washington establish authority at home and avoid wars abroad? Key QuestionHow did Washington establish authority at home and avoid wars abroad?
20Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic Lesson 3: The Federalists in Charge
21Vocabulary John Adams: Second President of the United States Alien and Sedition Acts: Series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrantsStates’ rights: Idea that the states have certain rights that the federal government cannot overruleNullification: idea that a state could cancel a federal law within a stateForeign Policy: Relations with the governments of other nationsPolitical Party: Group of people that tries to promote its ideas and influence governmentAliens: Immigrants who are not yet citizensSedition: Stirring up rebellion against a government
22How did Federalists dominate politics under President John Adams? Key QuestionHow did Federalists dominate politics under President John Adams?
23Washington RetiresWashington decided that 8 years in office (2 terms) was enoughAs President, Washington tried to promote national unityMany criticized his decision to remain neutral in the French RevolutionWashington’s Final ConcernsDealt with foreign policyAdvised nation to remain neutral and avoid permanent alliancesCautioned against letting political differences divide the nationAt the end of Washington’s terms, Americans were very dividedStrong Central Government vs. Weak Central Government
24Growth of Political Parties Differences led to creation of political partiesThomas Jefferson and John Madison led the Democratic-Republican PartyEmphasis on democracy and republican systemLimited power of national governmentStrict interpretationFarmers and workers supported this partyToday is the Democratic PartyAlexander Hamilton led the Federalist PartyBelief in Strong National GovernmentLoose interpretationMerchants and manufacturers supported this partyBased off of the supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution
25John Adams’s Administration Adams chosen as 2nd presidentJefferson became VPIssues with FranceWashington left with strong tensionsFrance seized and harassed over 300 US ships
26Alien and Sedition Acts New immigrants often supported Democratic-Republican partyCongress was dominated by FederalistsPassed the Alien and Sedition ActsFor immigrants that weren’t citizens yetCould not get citizenship for 5-14 yearsPresident could arrest or deport any suspicious immigrants during wartimeSedition: stirring up rebellion against a governmentThis was also outlawed
27Peace with France Adams opened talks up with France again Agreed to stop all naval attacksAll ships could sail in peace
28How did Federalists dominate politics under President John Adams? Key QuestionHow did Federalists dominate politics under President John Adams?