Presentation on theme: "Challenges to the New Government 9-2. Securing the Northwest Territory Spain owned much of the land west of the Mississippi, Florida, and the port of."— Presentation transcript:
Securing the Northwest Territory Spain owned much of the land west of the Mississippi, Florida, and the port of New Orleans Native Americans claimed Northwest Territory – Ohio River and north into Canada Britain still held forts north of the Ohio River, supported Native Americans Americans wanted the ports in order to trade.
1. Why was there conflict over the West? Spain held much of the land West of Mississippi and port of New Orleans. Spanish threatened to close ports. Spanish also stirred up trouble with settlers and Native Americans. Native American resistance in Northwest Territory Britain still held on to forts north of Ohio River, and supported the Native Americans
Battle of Fallen Timbers Washington sent troops to Ohio river valley –Defeated by Little Turtle –Indian tribes united to defeat us army –“Mad Anthony” Wayne sent to defeat the tribes August 20, 1794, fight between 2,000 Indians and Wayne’s troops Native Americans defeated… 12 tribes signed the treaty of Greenville –Agreed to surrender Ohio and Indiana regions to US
2. How did the Battle of Fallen Timbers affect Native American claims to land? Crushed their hopes of keeping their land in the Northwest Territory. They had to surrender much of present-day Ohio and Indiana.
4. Why did Washington decide to send troops to the Ohio Valley to fight the force led by Little Turtle? He believed the Northwest Territory was critical to the security and growth of a new nation.
5. What were the results of the Battle of Fallen Timbers for the Native Americans? For the United States? Native Americans defeated US forced Native Americans to sign the Treaty of Greenville, surrendering Ohio and Indiana.
6. Why did the British refuse to help the Native Americans? They did not want war with the United States.
Whiskey Rebellion Conflict over government’s tax on whiskey –Whiskey very popular among farmers –Made more from whiskey than from rye –Farmers used whiskey for $$ Summer of 1794 farmers attacked tax collectors to protest the tax on whiskey 13,000 soldiers sent to put down the uprising
7. Why were the farmers angry about the whiskey tax? They were angry because they used the whiskey to trade, and did not have the money to buy goods in many cases, let alone pay taxes.
Whiskey Rebellion “Such resistance is treason against society, against liberty, against everything that ought to be dear to a free, enlightened, and prudent people. To tolerate it were to abandon your most precious interests. Not to subdue it were to tolerate it.” –Alexander Hamilton
8. Why did Washington decide to crush the rebellion and enforce the tax? He feared that not to act was to undermine the new government and weaken it’s authority.
3. Why was Washington’s treatment of the Whiskey Rebellion important? He had shown that the government had the power and the will to enforce its laws.
The French Rebellion Inspired by the Americans, French revolutionaries demanded liberty and equality By 1792 revolution became very violent
The French Rebellion 1793 – King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette executed France then declared war on Britain, Holland, and Spain This puts the US in an awkward position –WHY????
What to do????? France had been ally of US during revolution Britain was United States’ most important trading partner Washington decided US would remain… NEUTRAL
9. Why did the war between France and Britain put the United States in a difficult position? France had been our ally in the American Revolution, but Britain was our biggest trading partner.
10. How did Jefferson, Hamilton, and Washington think the United States should react to the War? Jefferson – Felt that a move to crush the revolution was an attack on liberty everywhere. Hamilton – Pointed out that Britain as the US’s most important trading partner, and British trade was too important to risk war. Washington – Declared that the US would remain neutral
Remaining Neutral Britain made it hard to remain nuetral –Seized American cargo ships sailing from West Indies –Still held on to forts in Ohio Valley
Remaining Neutral Chief Justice John Jay goes to England to work this out Jay’s Treaty –called for British to pay damages to ships –British agreed to leave Ohio Valley –Jay’s Treaty unpopular because it failed to open West Indies trade to Americans
Remaining Neutral Thomas Pinckney helps reduce tensions along frontier Pinckney’s Treaty –Americans could travel freely down Mississippi River –Could store goods in New Orleans without paying customs duties –Spain accepted 31 st parallel as Southern boundary of US
11. What problems did Jay’s Treaty and Pickney’s Treaty solve for the United States? Jay’s Treaty – Forced the British to pay for damages to seized US vessels, and for the British to leave the Ohio Valley Pinckney’s Treaty – Gave US the right to travel freely on the Mississippi river, and to store goods at the port of New Orleans without paying customs duties.
Meanwhile…change was coming back east as Washington stepped down. To Be Continued…