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Tang and Song China The Golden Age of China How Many Dynasties are in Post- Classical China 600-1450? Do Now: Please take out DBQ graphic organizers on.

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Presentation on theme: "Tang and Song China The Golden Age of China How Many Dynasties are in Post- Classical China 600-1450? Do Now: Please take out DBQ graphic organizers on."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tang and Song China The Golden Age of China How Many Dynasties are in Post- Classical China ? Do Now: Please take out DBQ graphic organizers on Buddhism in China What missing voices/additional documents? What would their perspective Offer? Can you think of other documents (ex. A census from Tang Dynasty Accounting for Buddhist population and service)

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3 Sui Dynasty  Emperor Wendi united traditional core of China after fall of Han  Wendi lowered taxes / instituted land reform  Murdered by son Yangdi

4 Sui Dynasty  Yangdi re-established civil service exams  Advanced scholar-gentry  Forced labor of peasants for construction of Grand Canal  Unsuccessfully tried to take Korea  Decline due to failure in war, breakaway provinces, pressure from northern nomads  Yangdi assassinated by own ministers

5 Tang Dynasty  Tang established by one of Yangdi’s officials  Tang armies conquered as far as Afghanistan- Tang largest Chinese empire  Completed repairs on Great Wall  Empire extended into Tibet, Vietnam, and Manchuria

6 Tang Dynasty  Korea was conquered and vassal kingdom, Silla, established  Scholar-gentry used to administer vast lands  Scholar-gentry used to offset nobles  Civil service exam expanded  Merit important but nobles found place in scholar-gentry

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8 Tang Dynasty  Buddhism found home in China due to patronage by royal family  Buddhism became strong social, economic, and political force  Attempt made by Empress Wu to elevate Buddhism to state religion

9 Tang Dynasty  Rise of Buddhism in China (mid 9 th century)  Buddhism changed by Chinese society  Buddhism seen as threat by Confucians and Daoists  Why?

10 Tang Dynasty  Buddhists restricted and persecuted  Buddhism survived but severely weakened  Emperor Xanzong and concubine, Yang Guifei  Revolts killed many of Yang’s relatives- forced emperor to execute Yang  Rebellions, breakaway provinces, and weak rulers brought end to Tang Yang Guifei

11 Song Dynasty  Last Tang emperor forced to resign  Emperor Taizu reunited much of China but north remained under control of nomadic Jin  Song paid tribute to nomads  Military came under control of government- increasing status of scholar-gentry Emperor Taizu

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13 Song Dynasty  Civil service exams became routine- every three years at three levels: district, province, and imperial  Rise of Neo-Confucianism  Stressed morality as highest goal  Hostile to outside influences and ideas  Stress on traditionalism stifled technological innovation and creative thought  Emphasized rank, obligation, deference, and gender distinctions

14 Song Dynasty  Decline due to financial stress: tribute payments to northern nomads, cost of maintaining large army on border  Increased taxes caused social unrest  Army poorly led and equipped due to control by scholar-gentry  Reforms between by Chief Minister Wang Anshi: cheap loans, taxes on landlords and scholar-gentry, establishment of trained mercenary army

15 Song Dynasty  Reforms opposed by scholar-gentry  Reforms ended with death of emperor and influence of Neo-Confucianism on succeeding emperor  North forces shrinking of Song into rump state  Song conquered by Mongols

16 Golden Age of China  Grand Canal expanded by Tang caused shift in populations within China  South saw increase in population and food production  Canal increased communication within China, increased revenues, opened up south to commerce  Silk Road, cut by nomads, was re-opened and revitalized by Tang

17 The Silk Road

18 Golden Age of China  Increased sea trade under Tang and Song  Use of Chinese Junks  Trade and markets regulated  Guilds established  Deposit shops (banks)  Paper money  Flying money (credit vouchers) Chinese Junk

19 Golden Age of China  Levels of urbanization not seen in West until Industrial Revolution  Industry- iron production greater in Song than in Britain during Industrial Revolution

20 Life in China  Canal allowed peasants to market produce throughout empire  Large estates broken up for peasant land- accompanying loss of power of nobility  Power of males intensified. Child who struck parents could be beheaded. Child who struck older sibling could get 2 ½ years hard labor

21 Life in China  Marriage put off until late in life- as late as 30 for scholar- gentry  Women could divorce  Neo-Confucianism reinforced male dominance  Footbinding became visible symbol of women’s subjugation Chinese women making silk

22 Life in China  Footbinding  Symbol of women’s subjugation  Started with upper classes  Began around age 5-6  Limited women’s mobility  Practice spread to peasant class  Seen as attractive- unbound feet would severely limit marriage prospects

23 Life in China  Technological advances  Most basic types of bridges developed (truss, suspension, etc.)  Application of gunpowder for weaponry  Compass first used for navigation  Abacus  Moveable type

24 COT: Post-Classical China  In Post-Classical China ( ) the mandate of heaven remained a way to determine dynastic succession providing structure through rebuilding of infrastructure (Great Wall and the new Grand Canal linking the Yangtze to the Yellow Rivers), the role of the civil service bureaucracy would facilitate sound political decision making through the organization of the economy based on Confucian principles, however, trade would increase expanding both China’s size (during the Tang Dynasty) and their hegemony (sinification of Korea, Viet Nam and Japan) and extension of maritime (junk ship trade across the Indian Ocean) and caravan trade (across the silk routes).  In post-classical China the increase in trade (proto-industrialism/commercial expansion) would lead Tang-Song China to actively pursue tributary ties. The influence of Buddhism through trade routes would lead to great internal conflict eventually developing into neo-Confucianism. With all of this trading influence, however, the status of merchants would not be elevated based on Confucian principles.

25 COT ChangesContinuities Civil Service system expanded Grand Canal (liking Yellow with Yangtze) Elevated status of women then foot binding Dynasties (Sui-Tang-Song) Size of empire ( Tang the largest) Urbanization (Chang ‘An and Guang Zhou) Woman Empress (Wu Zeitan) Banking, letters of credit, paper”flying”money Neo-Confucianism- mixing Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism Gunpowder weaponry (Song Dynasty) Abacus Removable type printing Compass Porcelain Mechanical clock Civil service meritocracy Infrastructure rebuilt every new dynasty ( in accordance with Mandate of Heaven) Mandate of Heaven Patriarchy (deference in Confucianism) Silk Road and Indian Ocean Confucianism (role in Civil Sevice) Buddhism Gunpowder ( for fireworks) Paper production (although spreads West after Battle of Talas River with Abbasid Caliphate) Role of forced labor Role of military


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