Presentation on theme: "How Many Dynasties are in Post-Classical China ?"— Presentation transcript:
1How Many Dynasties are in Post-Classical China 600-1450? Do Now: Please take out DBQ graphic organizers on Buddhism in ChinaWhat missing voices/additional documents? What would their perspectiveOffer? Can you think of other documents (ex. A census from Tang DynastyAccounting for Buddhist population and service)Tang and Song ChinaThe Golden Age of ChinaHow Many Dynasties are in Post-Classical China ?
3Sui DynastyEmperor Wendi united traditional core of China after fall of HanWendi lowered taxes / instituted land reformMurdered by son Yangdi
4Sui Dynasty Yangdi re-established civil service exams Advanced scholar-gentryForced labor of peasants for construction of Grand CanalUnsuccessfully tried to take KoreaDecline due to failure in war, breakaway provinces, pressure from northern nomadsYangdi assassinated by own ministers
5Tang Dynasty Tang established by one of Yangdi’s officials Tang armies conquered as far as Afghanistan- Tang largest Chinese empireCompleted repairs on Great WallEmpire extended into Tibet, Vietnam, and Manchuria
6Tang DynastyKorea was conquered and vassal kingdom, Silla, establishedScholar-gentry used to administer vast landsScholar-gentry used to offset noblesCivil service exam expandedMerit important but nobles found place in scholar-gentry
8Tang DynastyBuddhism found home in China due to patronage by royal familyBuddhism became strong social, economic, and political forceAttempt made by Empress Wu to elevate Buddhism to state religion
9Tang Dynasty Rise of Buddhism in China (mid 9th century) Buddhism changed by Chinese societyBuddhism seen as threat by Confucians and DaoistsWhy?
10Tang Dynasty Buddhists restricted and persecuted Buddhism survived but severely weakenedEmperor Xanzong and concubine, Yang GuifeiRevolts killed many of Yang’s relatives- forced emperor to execute YangRebellions, breakaway provinces, and weak rulers brought end to TangYang Guifei
11Song Dynasty Last Tang emperor forced to resign Emperor Taizu reunited much of China but north remained under control of nomadic JinSong paid tribute to nomadsMilitary came under control of government- increasing status of scholar-gentryEmperor Taizu
13Song DynastyCivil service exams became routine- every three years at three levels: district, province, and imperialRise of Neo-ConfucianismStressed morality as highest goalHostile to outside influences and ideasStress on traditionalism stifled technological innovation and creative thoughtEmphasized rank, obligation, deference, and gender distinctions
14Song DynastyDecline due to financial stress: tribute payments to northern nomads, cost of maintaining large army on borderIncreased taxes caused social unrestArmy poorly led and equipped due to control by scholar-gentryReforms between by Chief Minister Wang Anshi: cheap loans, taxes on landlords and scholar-gentry, establishment of trained mercenary army
15Song Dynasty Reforms opposed by scholar-gentry Reforms ended with death of emperor and influence of Neo-Confucianism on succeeding emperorNorth forces shrinking of Song into rump stateSong conquered by Mongols
16Golden Age of ChinaGrand Canal expanded by Tang caused shift in populations within ChinaSouth saw increase in population and food productionCanal increased communication within China, increased revenues, opened up south to commerceSilk Road, cut by nomads, was re-opened and revitalized by Tang
18Golden Age of China Increased sea trade under Tang and Song Use of Chinese JunksTrade and markets regulatedGuilds establishedDeposit shops (banks)Paper moneyFlying money (credit vouchers)Chinese Junk
19Golden Age of ChinaLevels of urbanization not seen in West until Industrial RevolutionIndustry- iron production greater in Song than in Britain during Industrial Revolution
20Life in ChinaCanal allowed peasants to market produce throughout empireLarge estates broken up for peasant land- accompanying loss of power of nobilityPower of males intensified. Child who struck parents could be beheaded. Child who struck older sibling could get 2 ½ years hard labor
21Chinese women making silk Life in ChinaChinese women making silkMarriage put off until late in life- as late as 30 for scholar-gentryWomen could divorceNeo-Confucianism reinforced male dominanceFootbinding became visible symbol of women’s subjugation
22Life in China Footbinding Symbol of women’s subjugation Started with upper classesBegan around age 5-6Limited women’s mobilityPractice spread to peasant classSeen as attractive- unbound feet would severely limit marriage prospects
23Life in China Technological advances Most basic types of bridges developed (truss, suspension, etc.)Application of gunpowder for weaponryCompass first used for navigationAbacusMoveable type
24COT: Post-Classical China 600-1450 In Post-Classical China ( ) the mandate of heaven remained a way to determine dynastic succession providing structure through rebuilding of infrastructure (Great Wall and the new Grand Canal linking the Yangtze to the Yellow Rivers), the role of the civil service bureaucracy would facilitate sound political decision making through the organization of the economy based on Confucian principles, however, trade would increase expanding both China’s size (during the Tang Dynasty) and their hegemony (sinification of Korea, Viet Nam and Japan) and extension of maritime (junk ship trade across the Indian Ocean) and caravan trade (across the silk routes) .In post-classical China the increase in trade (proto-industrialism/commercial expansion) would lead Tang-Song China to actively pursue tributary ties. The influence of Buddhism through trade routes would lead to great internal conflict eventually developing into neo-Confucianism. With all of this trading influence, however, the status of merchants would not be elevated based on Confucian principles.
25COT Changes Continuities Civil Service system expanded Grand Canal (liking Yellow with Yangtze)Elevated status of women then foot bindingDynasties (Sui-Tang-Song)Size of empire ( Tang the largest)Urbanization (Chang ‘An and Guang Zhou)Woman Empress (Wu Zeitan)Banking, letters of credit, paper”flying”moneyNeo-Confucianism- mixing Confucianism, Taoism and BuddhismGunpowder weaponry (Song Dynasty)AbacusRemovable type printingCompassPorcelainMechanical clockCivil service meritocracyInfrastructure rebuilt every new dynasty ( in accordance with Mandate of Heaven)Mandate of HeavenPatriarchy (deference in Confucianism)Silk Road and Indian OceanConfucianism (role in Civil Sevice)BuddhismGunpowder ( for fireworks)Paper production (although spreads West after Battle of Talas River with Abbasid Caliphate)Role of forced laborRole of military