Presentation on theme: "China During the Tang & Song Dynasties"— Presentation transcript:
1China During the Tang & Song Dynasties China under Tang dynasty, 700China under Song dynasty, 1142
2I. Beyond Ancient China 220 – Han dynasty collapses For 350 years afterwards, more than 30 dynasties attempt rule589 – Emperor Wendi reunites China, beginning the short-lived Sui dynastyRestored strong centralized governmentWon critical support of neighboring nomadic military commandersLowered taxes, built granaries to ensure a reserve food supplySon, Yangdi, assumes throne in 604Focused on Confucian-based education system, brought back examination system for incoming bureaucratsConstruction of Grand Canal – increased trade/economyLed a life of extravagance, assassinated in 618CHALLENGE QUESTION!
3II. Tang Dynasty ( )China was saved from political and social turmoil by Li Yuan and son, Tang TaizongFounded the Tang dynastyReconquered northern and western lands lost after fall of Han, expanded deep into central AsiaRestoration/expansion of bureaucracyExpanded civil service exam – established Ministry of Rites to oversee training of bureaucratsOpen to all men, but only wealthy could typically afford the necessary educationEducation/position in gov’t became more important than nobilityScholar-gentry class became more dominant and powerful than old aristocratic families
4II. Continued… Empress Wu Decline of Tang dynasty First and only woman to assume the title of Emperor in ChinaBegan by ruling behind the scenes of her husband and sonsPromoted Buddhism throughout empireThought Buddhism would bring legitimacy to reignAfter Wu, severe backlash against Buddhism by Confucian and Daoist scholarsDecline of Tang dynastyHad trouble controlling vast empireNomadic invasions, economic distress, internal rebellionsLast emperor of Tang dynasty forced to resign in 907 C.E.CHALLENGE QUESTION!
5III. Song Dynasty ( )China once again divided after Tang dynastyEmperor Taizu (Zhoa Kuangyin) reunited much of China, proclaimed himself first Song emperorSmaller empire than Tang, no control over western lands, lost northern landsNomadic peoples of north a constant problemEventually pushed south of Huanghe (Yellow River)Continued focus on ConfucianismNeo-Confucians – argued that virtue was obtained through learningDespised foreign philosophical systems, such as BuddhismSocial harmony arose from keeping place and rank, strictly patriarchal
6III. Continued… Slow decline Northern nomadic invaders and lack of military focus began to take its tollLate 11th century, neo-Confucians gained power in gov’t, widespread corruptionEconomy began to deteriorate, social unrest increasedTerritory pushed south by northern kingdoms, became known as Southern Song dynastyLasted another 150 years, but eventually fell to the Mongols
7IV. Advances in Technology & Knowledge During Tang & Song era, many innovations and advancements occurredJunks – large Chinese ships, used for trade, establishing tribute systemsMovable type – movable, carved blocks could be arranged for printingGun powder – originally for fireworks, led to bombs, canons, etc.Improved cultivation of rice and other agricultural improvements lead to population growthTrade takes a more prominent role in societySilk Roads, later ocean routes increase trade/contactPaper money (flying money) reduced risk for merchantsHelped economy and spread of cultureCHALLENGE QUESTION!
8V. Big Social Changes China becomes more urban Ten cities with over 1 million peopleChanges to social classesScholar-gentry – larger upper-class emergesPassing civil service exam ensured special social status (jinshi)Could wear certain clothing, exempt from corporal punishmentFamily name still greatly influenced positions and success“Middle class” – merchants, skilled artisans, minor officialsPeasant farmers still represented largest classStatus of women declinedNeo-Confucians pushed for male dominance of family and societyFeet binding – became sign of wealth, prestigeCHALLENGE QUESTION!
9CHALLENGE QUESTION #1Discuss the importance of Emperor Wendi’s accomplishments. Which one was the most important in unifying China?Complete sentences!BACK
10CHALLENGE QUESTION #2Why was Buddhism important to Empress Wu? Why did she choose it as the official religion of her reign? - Complete sentences!BACK
11CHALLENGE QUESTION #3Which of the innovations/achievements do you think had the greatest impact on society? Why?Complete sentencesBACK
12CHALLENGE QUESTION#4What modern-day practices resemble the practice of foot-binding? Is there anything in our own society that mirrors the ideals associated with foot-binding?Complete sentences!BACK
13Exit TicketWhat did the Sui dynasty do that helped bring China back to prominence?What role did the Neo-Confucians play in society?What innovations took place during the Tang & Song era?Describe and explain at least one social change from the Tang & Song era.