I. Reuniting the Empire A. Sui Rise and Fall (581 – 618 CE) 1. Wendi a. United traditional core of China after fall of Han b. Wendi lowered taxes / instituted land reform c. Murdered by son Yangdi
2. Yangdi a. Yangdi re-established civil service exams b. Advanced scholar-gentry c. Forced labor of peasants for construction of Grand Canal d. Unsuccessfully tried to take Korea e. Decline due to failure in war, breakaway provinces, pressure from northern nomads f. Yangdi assassinated by own ministers Unsuccessful Military campaigns led to the downfall of the Sui. How did this help?
II. The Tang (618 – 907 CE) Restores the Empire A. Tang established by one of Yangdi’s officials B. Military Power – army unites China 1. Extends borders to Afghanistan --largest Chinese empire --into Korea, Vietnam, Tibet C. Great Wall repaired
D. Rebuilding the Bureaucracy – Allowed rapid revival of empire 1. Unity a. Aristocracy weakened through use of scholar-gentry b. Confucian ideology revised, civil service exam expanded c. Scholar-gentry elite – administer vast lands d. Bureaucracy…very large…reached from the highest levels down to local areas --Reduced the power of the aristocracy…why? --Reduced the power of the aristocracy…why?
E. Government and Religion 1. Growth a. Buddhism became strong social, economic, and political force – had support of royal family 2. Early Tang support – attempt to make Buddhism the state religion by Empress Wu
F. Buddhism seen as threat by Confucians and Daoists. Why? 1. Confucians in administration a. Support taxation of Buddhist monasteries – worried they were an economic threat 2. Buddhists restricted and persecuted a. Buddhism survived but severely weakened 3. Confucianism emerges the central ideology Rebellions, breakaway provinces, and weak rulers brought end to Tang
III. The Rise of the Song (960 – 1279) A. Last Tang emperor forced to resign B. Emperor Taizu reunited much of China but north remained under control of nomads 1. Song paid tribute to nomads 1. Song paid tribute to nomads 2. Empire was smaller than the Tang 2. Empire was smaller than the Tang C. Military came under control of government --increasing status of scholar-gentry China in the Song Dynasty Era
D. Confucian Thought Rebounds 1. Libraries established – Old texts recovered 2. Civil service exams became routine – every three years at three levels: district, province, and imperial 3. Rise of Neo-Confucianism…blending of Confucianism and Buddhism a. Stressed morality as highest goal b. Hostile to outside influences and ideas…especially Buddhism c. Traditionalism stifled technological innovation and creative thought d. Emphasized rank, obligation, deference, and gender distinctions
E. The Beginning of the End for the Song 1. Decline due to financial stress: tribute payments to northern nomads, cost of maintaining large army on border 2. Increased taxes caused social unrest 3. Army poorly led and equipped due to control by scholar- gentry 4. Reforms between 1070-1090 by Chief Minister Wang Anshi: cheap loans, taxes on landlords and scholar- gentry, establishment of trained mercenary army
F. The Song Move South 1. 1085, emperor supporting Wang Anshi dies a. Reforms reversed by scholar-gentry 2. Nomadic forces from the north invade China…the Song flee south --Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) --Conquered by the Mongols China During the Southern Song Dynasty Era
IV. Golden Age of China A. Canal system 1. Built to handle population shift 2. Yangdi's (Sui) Grand Canal a. Links North to South b. South saw jump in population and food production c. Canal increased revenues, opened up south to commerce B. Trade Grows 1. Silk Roads that had been cut off by nomads were reopened by the Tang a. Greater contact with Buddhist, Islamic regions
2. Sea trade – Increase under Tang, Song a. Junks --Used the compass and the sternpost rudder. 3. Commerce expands a. Credit b. Deposit shops (banks) c. Flying money (deposit vouchers) d. Paper money e. Urban growth – population shifts --Levels of urbanization not seen in West until Industrial Revolution --Industry – iron production greater in Song than in Britain during Industrial Revolution
C. Agricultural Growth 1. Canals allowed peasants to market produce throughout empire 2. Large estates broken up for peasant land a. Led to loss of power of nobility D. Life in China 1. Marriage put off until late in life – as late as 30 for scholar-gentry 2. Women could divorce, but men were favored 3. Neo-Confucianism reinforced male dominance, no education for women
4. Footbinding became visible symbol of women’s subjugation a. Started with upper classes b. Began around age 5-6 c. Limited women’s mobility d. Practice spread to peasant class e. Seen as attractive…unbound feet would severely limit marriage prospects
E. Technological Advances 1. Gunpowder – Tang invents, used by Song for armaments 2. Compasses first used for navigation, abacus, moveable type
V. Imperial Japan A. Japan borrowed much from Chinese culture including Buddhism, Confucianism, and writing (7 th – 9 th centuries) B. 646 CE - Japanese emperor (from the Yamato clan) introduced the Taika Reforms intended to remake Japanese government along Chinese lines including using a scholar-gentry 1. Chinese influence challenged at all levels of Japanese society including nobles, Buddhists, and peasants 1. Chinese influence challenged at all levels of Japanese society including nobles, Buddhists, and peasants 2. Buddhist dominance caused emperor to flee Nara and establish new capital at Heian 2. Buddhist dominance caused emperor to flee Nara and establish new capital at Heian 3. Capital to Heian 3. Capital to Heian a. Abandons Taika reforms b. Aristocracy restored to power
B. Heian Era (~800 – 1200 CE) 1. Court culture a. Codes of behavior…ritual dress b. Aesthetic enjoyment – Pursuit of beauty c. Social Status very important…was ultimate goal --Love affairs were a major preoccupation d. Women and men take part --Lady Murasaki, Tale of Genji
C. Decreasing Imperial Power 1. Fujiwara family a. Bureaucracy staffed by nobles b. Nobles and Buddhists nibbled away at imperial power D. Warrior Class – Feudalism Grows 1. Regional lords (bushi) – ruled from fortresses…essentially established kingdoms; had private armies of Samurai
2. Warrior class emerges – Bushi & Samurai a. Special code – “Bushido” (Compare to Chivalry?) --Family honor most important --Death rather than defeat – Seppuku or hara-kiri b. Rising power of Bushi and corresponding loss of power of emperor created feudal system c. Peasants lose status, freedom – become serfs…produce food for the warriors d. Chinese influence drops as warrior power increases --No place for centralized government or bureaucracy --No place for centralized government or bureaucracy
Feudalism in Japan --Emperor --Emperor --Shogun --Shogun --Daimyo --Daimyo --Samurai --Samurai --Peasants --Peasants
Comparing Japanese & European Feudalism Similarities:*Loyalty *Lord/Vassal Relationship *Family Lineage Important *Code of Honor *Mounted/Armored/Sword Differences: (Japanese vs. European) *Acceptance of Death vs. Survival *Moral Code vs. Legal Code *All sons inherited vs. Primogeniture *Women have Samurai attitude vs. women as fragile/inferior beings *Art & Learning vs. Contempt for Art & Learning
VI. Warrior Class Dominates A. Constant struggle for power B. Eventually Ashikaga shogunate established in 1336 1. Emperor refused to recognize the shoguns causing Japan to erupt in civil war…led to the severe weakening and eventual collapse of central authority 2. By 1477, Japan divided into 300 kingdoms ruled by Daimyo (warlord landowners) a. Daimyo built up kingdoms through irrigation, trade and commerce, and construction projects b. Warfare becomes very brutal – peasant armies instead of courageous samurai
C. Women lost power. Given in marriage to cement alliances 1. Women encouraged to commit suicide if dishonored 1. Women encouraged to commit suicide if dishonored D. Zen Buddhism - stressed simplicity and discipline 1. Zen Buddhism became basis for Japanese art 1. Zen Buddhism became basis for Japanese art
VII. Korea --Ancestors from Siberia, Manchuria --4th c. B.C.E., farming, metalworking A. Sinification – Adopted Chinese Confucianism, Buddhism, and writing 1. Alliance with China allowed Silla to subjugate neighboring kingdoms 1. Alliance with China allowed Silla to subjugate neighboring kingdoms 2. Silla resistance against Tang forces caused Tang to accept Silla as an independent vassal state 2. Silla resistance against Tang forces caused Tang to accept Silla as an independent vassal state a. Silla borrowed much of Tang government practices a. Silla borrowed much of Tang government practices B. Korea maintained independence until 20th century. 1. Mongols invade (1231) – over a century of turmoil 1. Mongols invade (1231) – over a century of turmoil 2. Yi Dynasty lasted from 1392 - 1910 2. Yi Dynasty lasted from 1392 - 1910 Korea received more Chinese influence than any other state…yet still developed its own cultural and political identity.
VIII. Southeast Asia…Vietnam A. Vietnamese had strong cultural identity 1. Took care not to let borrowing from China dominate Vietnamese culture 2. Women enjoyed greater freedom than Chinese B. Vietnam first came under Chinese domination during Han Dynasty 1. Adopted bureaucracy including civil service exam 2. Adopted Chinese agricultural techniques & schools 3. Adopted Chinese military organization and weaponry allowing them to conquer peoples to south and west South China and Vietnam on the Eve of the Han Conquest
C. Vietnamese Independence – gained after the fall of the Tang 1. Distance from China helps resistance 2. Independent by 939 CE – this lasts under a series of dynasties using a Chinese style bureaucracy until the 19 th century a. Attempts to conquer by the Ming Dynasty and the Mongols failed b. Buddhism became dominant religion – frustrating attempts of Vietnamese scholar-gentry to gain power like that in China c. South Vietnam became more populated, powerful d. Power struggle erupted between two powerful families: Trinh/north and Nguyen/south --Struggle lasted centuries
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