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Chapter 5: Respiratory System. Chapter 5 Abbreviations  BS  CF  COPD  PE  SIDS  TB  URI  PCN = breath sounds = cystic fibrosis = chronic obstructive.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Respiratory System. Chapter 5 Abbreviations  BS  CF  COPD  PE  SIDS  TB  URI  PCN = breath sounds = cystic fibrosis = chronic obstructive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5: Respiratory System

2 Chapter 5 Abbreviations  BS  CF  COPD  PE  SIDS  TB  URI  PCN = breath sounds = cystic fibrosis = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease = pulmonary embolism = sudden infant death syndrome = tuberculosis = upper respiratory infection (common cold) = penicillin

3 Chapter 5 Abbreviations  ABG’s  CO2  HHN  O2  PF  Pulse ox  RT  SOB = arterial blood gases = carbon dioxide = hand held nebulizer = oxygen = peak flow = pulse oximetry = respiratory therapy = short of breath

4 Chapter 5 Abbreviations  DNR  DOA  I & D  T & A  VAT = do not resuscitate = dead on arrival = incision and drainage = tonsillectomy & adenoidectomy = video assisted thoracotomy

5 The Respiratory System  The Function  The exchange of O2 and CO2 between the atmosphere and body cells (called respiration or breathing)  Internal & External Respiration  Consists of nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

6 The Respiratory System  Organs of the Respiratory System  Nose  Lined with mucous membrane and fine hairs; it acts as a filter to moisten and warm the entering air  Nasal Septum: partition separating the right and left nasal cavities  Paranasal sinuses: air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities  Pharynx  Serves as a food and air passageway (also called throat)  Air= nose, pharynx, larynx  Food=mouth, pharynx, esophagus

7 The Respiratory System  Adenoids: lymphoid tissue located behind the nasal cavity  Tonsils: lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth  Larynx  Locationof the vocal cords. Air enters from the pharynx (also called voice box)  Epiglottis: flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing  Trachea  Passageway for air to the bronchi (also called windpipe)

8 The Respiratory System  Bronchus (pl. bronchi)  One of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides. The branching resemble a tree; therefore, they are referred to as a bronchial tree  Bronchioles: smallest subdivision of the tree  Alveolus (pl. alveoli): air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. O2 & CO2 are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries

9 The Respiratory System  Lungs  Two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity. The right lung consists of three lobes, and the left lung has two lobes  Pleura  Double-folded serous membrane covering each lung and lining the thoracic cavity, which contains serous fluid

10 The Respiratory System

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12 Word Parts for Respiratory System Combining FormDefinition  adenoid/o  alveol/o  bronchi/o, bronch/o  diaphragmat/o,  epiglott/o  laryng/o  lob/o  nas/o, rhin/o  adenoids  alveolus  bronchus  diaphragm  epiglottis  larynx  lobe  nose

13 Word Parts for Respiratory System Combining FormDefinition  pharyng/o  pleur/o  pneum/o, pneumon/o  pulmon/o  sept/o  sinus/o  thorac/o  tonsill/o  trache/o  pharynx  pleura  lung, air  lung  septum (wall of, fence)  sinus  thorax (chest)  tonsil  trachea

14 Word Parts Commonly Used with Respiratory System Combining FormDefinition  atel/o  capn/o  hem/o, hemat/o  muc/o  orth/o  ox/i, ox/o  phon/o  py/o  spir/o  imperfect, incomplete  carbon dioxide  blood  mucus  straight  oxygen  sound, voice  pus  breathe, breathing

15 Word Parts for Respiratory System PrefixDefinition  a-, an-  endo-  eu-  pan-  poly-  tachy-  absence of, without  within  normal, good  all, total  many, much  fast, rapid

16 Word Parts for Respiratory System SuffixDefinition  -algia  -ar, -ary, -eal  -cele  -centesis  -ectasis  -emia  -graphy  pain  pertaining to  hernia or protrusion  surgical puncture to aspirate fluid (with a sterile needle)  stretching out, dilatation, expansion  blood condition  process of recording, radiographic imaging

17 Word Parts for Respiratory System SuffixDefinition  -meter  -metry  -pexy  -pnea  -rrhagia  -scope  -scopic  -scopy  instrument used to measure  measurement  surgical fixation, suspension  breathing  rapid flow of blood  instrument used for visual examination  pertaining to visual examination  visual examination

18 Word Parts for Respiratory System SuffixDefinition  -spasm  -stenosis  -stomy  -thorax  -tomy  sudden, involuntary muscle contraction  constriction or narrowing  creation of an artificial opening  chest  cut into or incision

19 Med Terms (from word parts) [Disease & Disorders] TermDefinition  adenoiditis  alveolitis  atelectasis  bronchiectasis  bronchitis  bronchogenic carcinoma  bronchopneumonia  inflammation of the adenoids  inflammation of the alveolus  incomplete expansion (of the lung)  dilation of the bronchi  inflammation of the bronchi  cancerous tumor originating in a bronchus  diseased state of the bronchi and lungs (usually caused by infection)

20 Med Terms (from word parts) [Disease & Disorders] TermDefinition  diaphragmatocele  epiglottitis  hemothorax  laryngitis  laryngotracheo- bronchitis (LTB)  lobar pneumonia  hernia of the diaphragm  inflammation of the epiglottis  blood in the chest (pleural space)  inflammation of the larynx  inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi  pertaining to the lobe(s); diseased state of the lung (infection of one or more lobes of the lungs)

21 Med Terms (from word parts) [Disease & Disorders] TermDefinition  nasopharyngitis  pansinusitis  pharyngitis  pleuritis  pneumonia  inflammation of the nose and pharynx  inflammation of all sinuses  inflammation of the pharynx  inflammation of the pleura (pleurisy)  diseased state of the lung (the infection and inflammation are caused by bacteria such as Pneumococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus; viruses; and fungi)

22 Med Terms (from word parts) [Disease & Disorders] TermDefinition  pneumonitis  pneumothorax  pulmonary neoplasm  pyothorax  rhinitis  inflammation of the lung  air in the chest, which causes collapse of the lung (often a result of an open chest wound)  pertaining to (in) the lung, new growth  pus in the chest (pleural space)  inflammation of the (mucous) membranes (nose)

23 Med Terms (from word parts) [Disease & Disorders] TermDefinition  rhinomycosis  rhinorrhagia  thoracalgia  tonsillitis  tracheitis  tracheostenosis  abnormal condition of fungus in the nose  rapid flow of blood from the nose (also called epistaxis)  pain in the chest  inflammation of the tonsils  inflammation of the trachea  narrowing of the trachea

24 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Disease & Disorders] TermDefinition  asthma  chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, which is caused by constriction of airways that is reversible between attacks  a progressive lung disease that restricts air flow, which makes breathing difficult.  Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two main components of COPD, but it may also be caused by chronic asthmatic bronchitis. Most COPD is a result of cigarette smoking

25 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Disease & Disorders] TermDefinition  croup  epistaxis  influenza  condition resulting from acute obstruction of the larynx, characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness and stridor.  It may be caused by viral or bacterial infection, allergy, or foreign body. Mainly in children  nosebleed (rhinorrhagia)  highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus (also called flu)

26 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Disease & Disorders] TermDefinition  obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)  pleural effusion  upper respiratory infection  repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing; can produce daytime drowsiness and elevated blood pressure  fluid in the pleural space caused by a disease process or trauma  infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx (commonly called a cold)

27 Med Terms (from word parts) [Surgical Terms] TermDefinition  adenoidectomy  adenotome  bronchoplasty  laryngectomy  larynoplasty  laryngostomy  laryngotracheotomy  excision of the adenoids  surgical instrument used to cut the adenoids  surgical repair of a bronchus  excision of the larynx  surgical repair of the larynx  creation of an artificial opening into the larynx  incision of the larynx and trachea

28 Med Terms (from word parts) [Surgical Terms] TermDefinition  lobectomy  pleuropexy  pneumonectomy  rhinoplasty  septoplasty  septotomy  sinusotomy  thoracocentesis  excision of a lobe (0f the lung)  surgical fixation of the pleura  excision of a lung  surgical repair of the nose  surgical repair of the (nasal) septum  incision into the (nasal) septum  incision of a sinus  surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity (thoracentesis)

29 Med Terms (from word parts) [Surgical Terms] TermDefinition  thoracotomy  tonsillectomy  tracheoplasty  tracheostomy  tracheotomy  incision into the chest cavity  excision of the tonsils  surgical repair of the trachea  creation of an artificial opening into the trachea  incision of the trachea

30 Med Terms (from word parts) [Diagnostic Terms] TermDefinition ENDOSCOPY  bronchoscope  bronchoscopy  endoscope  endoscopic  endoscopy  instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi  visual examination of the bronchi  instrument used for visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity)  pertaining to visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity)  used to describe the practice of performing surgeries that use endoscopes  visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity)

31 Med Terms (from word parts) [Diagnostic Terms] TermDefinition  laryngoscope  laryngoscopy  thoracoscope  thoracoscopy  instrument used for visual examination of the larynx  visual examination of the larynx  instrument used for visual examination of the thorax  visual examination of the thorax

32 Med Terms (from word parts) [Diagnostic Terms] TermDefinition PULMONARY FUNCTION  capnometer  oximeter  spirometer  spirometry  instrument used to measure carbon dioxide (levels in expired gas)  instrument used to measure oxygen (saturation in the blood)  instrument used to measure breathing (or lung volumes)  a measurement of breathing (or lung volumes

33 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) Diagnostic Terms TermDefinition DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING  chest radiograph (CXR) PULMONARY FUNCTION  Arterial blood gases (ABG’s)  a radiographic image of the chest performed to evaluate the lungs and the heart (chest x-ray)  a test performed on arterial blood to determine levels of O2, CO2, and other gases present

34 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Diagnostic Terms] TermDefinition  peak flow meter  pulse oximetry  a portable instrument used to measure how fast air can be pushed out of the lung  used to help monitor asthma and adjust medication accordingly  a noninvasive method of measuring oxygen in the blood by using a device that attaches to the fingertip

35 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Diagnostic Terms] TermDefinition OTHER  auscultation  percussion  the act of listening for sounds within the body through a stethoscope.  Used for assessing and/or diagnosing conditions of the lungs, pleura, heart, and abdomen  the act of tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of the part beneath by the sound obtained  A dull sound indicates the presence of fluid in a body space or cavity such as in the pleural space

36 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Diagnostic Terms] TermDefinition  stethoscope  an instrument used to hear internal body sounds; used for performing auscultation and blood pressure measurement

37 Med Terms (from word parts) [Complimentary Terms] TermDefinition  acapnia  alveolar  anoxia  aphonia  apnea  bronchoalveolar  bronchospasm  diaphragmatic  condition of absence (less than normal level) of CO2 (in the blood)  pertaining to the alveolus  condition of absence of oxygen  condition of absence of voice  absence of breathing  pertaining to the bronchi & alveoli  spasmodic contraction in the bronchi  pertaining to the diaphragm (phrenic)

38 Med Terms (from word parts) [Complimentary Terms] TermDefinition  dysphonia  dyspnea  endotracheal  eupnea  hypercapnia  hyperpnea  hypocapnia  hypopnea  hypoxemia  condition of difficult speaking  difficult breathing  pert. to within the trachea  normal breathing  condition of excessive CO2 (in the blood)  excessive breathing  condition of deficient CO2 (in the blood)  deficient breathing  condition of deficient O2 in the blood

39 Med Terms (from word parts) [Complimentary Terms] TermDefinition  hypoxia  intrapleural  laryngeal  laryngospasm  mucoid  mucous  nasopharyngeal  orthopnea  condition of deficient O2 (to the tissues)  pert. to within the pleura  pert. to the larynx  spasmodic contraction of the larynx  resembling mucus  pert. to mucus  pert. to the nose and pharynx  able to breathe easier in a straight (upright) position

40 Med Terms (from word parts) [Complimentary Terms] TermDefinition  pulmonary  pulmonologist  pulmonology  rhinorrhea  tachypnea  thoracic  pert. to the lungs  a physician who studies and treats diseases of the lung  study of the lung (a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the lung)  discharge from the nose (as in a cold)  rapid breathing  pert. to the chest

41 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Complimentary Terms] TermDefinition  airway  aspirate  bronchoconstrictor  bronchodilator  passageway by which air enters and leaves the lungs as well as a mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed  to withdraw fluid or suction fluid; also to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract  agent causing narrowing of the bronchi  agent causing the bronchi to widen

42 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Complimentary Terms] TermDefinition  cough  hiccup  hyperventilation  hypoventilation  mucopurulent  sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs  sudden catching of breath with a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm (hiccough and singultus)  ventilation of the lungs beyond normal body needs  ventilation of the lungs that does not fulfill the body’s gas exchange needs  containing both mucus and pus

43 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Complimentary Terms] TermDefinition  mucus  nebulizer  nosocomial infection  paroxysm  slimy fluid secreted by the mucous membranes  device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment  an infection acquired during hospitalization  periodic, sudden attack

44 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Complimentary Terms] TermDefinition  patent  sputum  ventilator  open, the opposite of closed or compromised, thus allowing passage of air, as in patent trachea and bronchi  can be applied to any tubular passageway in the body, as in a patent artery, allowing passage of blood)  mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea expelled through the mouth  mechanical device used to assist with or substitute for breathing

45 Med Terms ( not from word parts ) [Complimentary Terms] TermDefinition  auscultatory  inhale  exhale  purulent  normal adult RR  pert. to auscultation  breathe in  breathe out  containing pus  breaths per minute


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