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C H A P T E R 11 Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body.

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Presentation on theme: "C H A P T E R 11 Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body."— Presentation transcript:

1 C H A P T E R 11 Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body

2 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Respiratory System 7 7 U N I T

3 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Source and the Importance of Oxygen Sources of oxygen  Plants use sun, water, and carbon dioxide to make oxygen.  Air: Adults carry 2 quarts of O 2 in their blood, lungs, and tissue. Importance  The respiratory system takes in air, removes the oxygen, and sends it through the blood while removing carbon dioxide.

4 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Pathway of Oxygen to the Internal Cell Mouth and nose Pharynx (throat) Larynx (voice box) Trachea (windpipe) Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli (air sacs)

5 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Respiratory System

6 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Structure and Function of the Nose The nose is a cavity that is divided by a wall of cartilage called the septum. The structures inside the nose warm and filter the air.  Cilia (hairs that warm the air)  Conchae (3 bones that add moisture)  Mucous membranes (trap dust and bacteria)

7 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Structure and Function of the Pharynx Also called the throat Passageway for food and air Connects the mouth to the larynx

8 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Structure and Function of the Epiglottis Lid on the top of the larynx When food is swallowed, the lid closes so that food is directed down the esophagus and not into the lungs. Air passes over the open epiglottis and enters the larynx.

9 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Trachea, Bronchi, and Bronchioles

10 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Structure and Function of the Larynx Also called the voice box A tube made up of nine separate cartilages to maintain openness Lined with mucous membranes that form two folds called the vocal cords

11 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Structure and Function of the Trachea Also called the windpipe Held open by C-shaped rings of cartilage The wall between the rings is elastic to adjust for body positions. Above the middle of the sternum, the trachea divides into two sections called bronchi.

12 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Structure and Function of the Bronchus and Bronchiole The bronchus connects the trachea to the lungs. Once inside the lungs, the bronchus divides and divides again to become microscopic bronchioles that act as tiny air passageways.

13 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Structure and Function of the Alveolus Also called the air sacs Clusters of capillaries located at the ends of each bronchiole The body contains approximately 500 million alveoli.

14 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved How Voice Sounds Are Produced The vocal cords move across the larynx when struck by air. The vocal cords are held tense by contracting muscles. The degree of tension and length of the vocal cords determine the pitch of the voice. The tighter and longer the cords, the higher the pitch.

15 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved External and Internal Respiration External  The process of getting oxygen from the nose to the alveolus and into capillaries and the return of carbon dioxide to the nose Internal  The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level

16 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Pleural Covering Each lung, with its blood vessels and nerves, is enclosed in a membrane called the visceral pleura. A membrane called the parietal pleura lines the chest cavity. The space between the pleura contains fluid to prevent friction during respiration.

17 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Diaphragm and the Brain and How They Relate to Breathing The main muscle of respiration is called the diaphragm. When the diaphragm contracts, it produces a vacuum that causes air to be drawn in. When the diaphragm relaxes, air is forced out of the lungs. (continued)

18 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved The Diaphragm and the Brain and How They Relate to Breathing Breathing is controlled by the respiratory center in the brain. An increase in carbon dioxide or a drop in oxygen triggers the respiratory center to force respirations.

19 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Occurrences That Alter Breathing Coughing  Deep breaths followed by forceful exhalation that can clear mucus from the lower respiratory tract Hiccoughs  Caused by spasm of the diaphragm, possibly the result of an irritation to the diaphragm (continued)

20 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Occurrences That Alter Breathing Sneezing  Air is forced through the nose to clear the upper respiratory structures Yawning  Deep, prolonged breath that can be caused by a drop in oxygen levels Crying  A change in the breathing pattern that is in response to emotions

21 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Surfactant A fatty molecule located on the respiratory membrane Maintains the inflated alveolus so that it does not collapse between respirations

22 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Diagnostic Exams

23 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Perfusion Scans Examination of the lungs after intravenous administration of a radioactive dye to provide an image of pulmonary blood flow Can be used to diagnose blood vessel obstruction

24 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Ventilation Scans Examination of the lungs following the inhalation of a mixture of air and gases from a mask or bag that shows what areas of the lungs are ventilated during respiration

25 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Arterial Blood Gas Studies Measures the partial pressures of both oxygen and carbon dioxide and determines the pH

26 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Bronchoscopy and Chest X-Ray Bronchoscopy  A tube is inserted into the trachea to view the airways or to remove a foreign body Chest x-rays  Studies that tell the general health of the lungs and surrounding tissue

27 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Diseases and Disorders

28 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Allergic rhinitis  A reaction of the eyes, nose, and sinuses to airborne allergens Asthma  A chronic disorder that causes swelling, inflammation, and constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles  Can be caused by exposure to allergens

29 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Atelectasis and Bronchitis Atelectasis  Lack of air in the lungs resulting from collapse of the alveolus Bronchitis  Acute or chronic disease that results in inflammation of the bronchial walls and narrowing of the airways

30 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) A chronic condition that is usually the result of a combination of respiratory disorders A progressive disease that causes dyspnea, respiratory failure, and death

31 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Emphysema and Epistaxis Emphysema  Irreversible enlargement of the air spaces in the lungs caused by destruction of the alveolar walls  Results in the inability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide Epistaxis  Nosebleeds

32 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Laryngitis and Pleurisy Laryngitis  Acute or chronic inflammation of the vocal cords Pleurisy  Inflammation of the pleura that results as a complication of infections, pneumonia, tuberculosis, or injury

33 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea Associated with chronic lung disease or left ventricular heart failure Individuals awaken at night with a sensation of suffocation that is probably caused by an accumulation of fluid in the lungs

34 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Pneumonia and Pneumothorax Pneumonia  Acute infection of the lung tissues  The leading cause of death among patients already in a weakened state Pneumothorax  Air or gas that has accumulated between the two pleural layers, causing collapse of the lung tissue

35 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Respiratory Distress Syndrome Can kill infants between the ages of birth and 8 months of age Normal breathing becomes rapid and shallow. The nostrils flare and the sternum retracts. The infant “grunts.”

36 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Tuberculosis Acute or chronic bacterial lung infection that is highly contagious The body reacts to the bacteria by converting destroyed tissue into a cheeselike material that can develop into fiber optic obstruction of the lung cavities.

37 Copyright © 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved Unit Summary Name the functions of the following structures of the respiratory system: nose, trachea, and bronchi. What is a pneumothorax?


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