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The Respiratory System Lecture 3 Done by: Alaa Al-Hasani.

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1 The Respiratory System Lecture 3 Done by: Alaa Al-Hasani

2 Objective of the lecture On the completion of this lecture, you will able to:  Identify and describe the major structures and functions of the respiratory system.  Recognize, define, spell and pronounce terms related to the pathology, the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the respiratory system.

3 Lecture Content  Functions of the Respiratory System  Structures of the Respiratory System I. The Upper Respiratory System II. The Lower Respiratory System  Medical terms


5 Functions of the Respiratory System I. Bring oxygen- rich air into the body for delivery to the body tissues through the blood. II. Expel waste product (carbon dioxide) returned to the lungs by the blood. (This process is accomplished through act of respiration ) III. Produce the airflow through the larynx that makes speech possible.

6 Structures of the Respiratory System

7 The respiratory system is divided into: 1) The Upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx and trachea. 2) The Lower respiratory tract consists of the bronchial tree and lungs.

8 The Upper Respiratory System

9 1- The Nose Functions of the nose: 1) It serves as an air passageway. 2) It warms and moistens inhaled air. 3) Its cilia and mucous membrane trap dust, bacteria and other foreign matter. 4) It contains olfactory receptors, which sort out odors. The Upper Respiratory System

10 1- The Nose Medical Terminology: 1) Rhin/o/plasty  (Rhin/o- means nose, -plasty means surgical repair)  Definition:  Definition: surgical repair of the nose. 2) Rhin/o/rrhea  (Rhin/o- means nose, -rrhea means flow, discharge)  Definition:  Definition: discharge from the nose. 3) Rhin/o/scopy  (Rhin/o- means nose, -scopy means process of visual examination)  Definition:  Definition: process of visual examination of the nose. The Upper Respiratory System

11 2- The Pharynx The pharynx or throat is divided into 3 parts: 1) Naso/pharynx (Naso- means nose) located behind the nose. 2) Oro/pharynx (oro- means mouth) located behind the mouth. 3) Laryngo/pharynx (laryngo- means larynx) located behind the larynx. The functions of the pharynx or throat :  Serves as a passageway for both air and food at the back of the throat. The Upper Respiratory System

12 2- The Pharynx Medical Terminology: 1) Pharyng/itis  (Pharyng- means pharynx, -itis means inflammation)  Definition:  Definition: inflammation of the pharynx. 2) Naso/o/Pharyng/itis  (Naso/o- means nose, -Pharyng- means pharynx, -itis means inflammation).  Definition:  Definition: inflammation of the nose and pharynx. The Upper Respiratory System

13 3- The Larynx (voice box) Cartilages of the Larynx: 1. The Thyroid Cartilage : known as “Adam’s Apple” 2. The Epiglottic Cartilage (know as Epiglottis): prevent aspiration of the food into the trachea. 3. The Cricoid Cartilage General functions of the Larynx :  Production of the vocal sounds. The Upper Respiratory System

14 3- The Larynx (voice box) Medical Terminology: 1) Laryng/itis  (Laryng- means larynx, -itis means inflammation)  Definition:  Definition: inflammation of the larynx. 2) Laryng/o/scope  (Laryng/o- means larynx, -scope means instrument).  Definition:  Definition: an instrument used to examine the larynx. The Upper Respiratory System

15 4- The Trachea General functions of the Trachea (windpipe):  Provide an open passageway for air to the lung. The Upper Respiratory System

16 4- The Trachea Medical Terminology: 1) Trache/algia  (Trache- means trachea, -algia means pain)  Definition:  Definition: pain in the trachea. 2) Trache/o/laryng/o/tomy  (Trache/o- means trachea, laryng/o means larynx, -tomy means incision).  Definition :  Definition : incision into the trachea and larynx. 3) Trache/o/stomy  (Trache/o- means trachea, -stomy means new opening).  Definition :  Definition : new opining into the trachea. The Upper Respiratory System

17 The Lower Respiratory System

18 1- The Bronchial tree  The trachea divides into 2 branches called Bronchi (singular called Bronchus), one branch goes into each lung.  The Bronchi provide the passageway for air to the lungs.  The Bronchi are further subdivided into Bronchioles.  Eventually, the further subdivisions lead to tiny air sacs called Alveoli. Alveoli are the very small grape-like clusters found at the end of each bronchiole. Capillaries surrounding each alveolus is where the exchange of gases with the blood occurs. The Lower Respiratory System

19 1- The Bronchial tree Medical Terminology: 1) Bronchi/ ectasis  (Bronchi- means bronchi, -ectasis means dilation, expansion or stretching)  Definition:  Definition: dilation of the bronchi. 2) Bronchiol/itis  (Bronchiol- means bronchiole, -itis means inflammation).  Definition :  Definition : inflammation of the bronchiole. 3) Bronch/o/scope  (Bronch/o means bronchi, -scope means instrument).  Definition :  Definition : an instrument used to examine the bronchi. The Lower Respiratory System

20 2- The Lung The lungs are divided into lobes; I. The right lung has 3 lobes (superior, middle and inferior) II. The left lung has 2 lobes (superior and inferior), and it slightly smaller than right lung because of the space taken by the heart. The Lower Respiratory System

21 2- The Lung Medical Terminology: 1) Pulmon/ectomy  (pulmon- means lung, -ectomy means excision)  Definition:  Definition: surgical excision of the lung or part of a lung. 2) Pneumon/itis  (Pneumon- means lung, -itis means inflammation).  Definition :  Definition : inflammation of the lung. The Lower Respiratory System

22 The Diaphragm  Is the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.  The contraction and relaxation of this muscle makes breathing possible. The Lower Respiratory System

23 MeaningCombining formMeaningCombining form Membrane surrounding the lung Pleur/o Bronchial tube- bronchus Bronch/o bronchi/o Diaphragm Phren/o Larynx Laryng/o Air sac Alveol/o Throat-pharynx Pharyng/o Rib Cost/o Lung- air Pneum/o pneumon/o Blood Hemo Lung Pulm/o - Pulmon/o Bluish discoloration Cyno Chest Thorac/o - Steth/o Epiglottis Epiglott/o Trachea(Windpipe) Trache/o Nose Nas/o – Rhin/o To breath Spir/o Sound – voice Phon/o - Phonia Cough Tuss/i Oxygen Ox/o/i/ Main word roots and their meanings

24 Examples of Suffixes MeaningSuffixMeaningSuffix Incision into-tomyBreathing-pnea Surgical fixation-pexyPertaining to breathing -pneic Technique of making an X-ray -graphyTo measure-metry Instrument to view-scopeEnlargement – dilatation- expansion -ectasis - ectasia Visual examination-scopySurgical repair-plasty opening-stomyRemoval-excision-ectomy Paralysis-plegiaSudden involuntary contraction -spam

25 Medical Terms

26 Pathology of the Respiratory System

27  Anoxia : absence of oxygen from the body.  Hypoxia : decreased (below normal) oxygen in body tissue.  Hemoptysis : coughing (spitting up) of blood (-ptysis means spitting).  Cyanosis : bluish discoloration of skin due to lack of oxygen.  Hiccup : chronic spasm of diaphragm.

28 Breathing disorders  Apnea : without breathing  Tachypnea: rapid breathing  Bradypnea : slow breathing  Dyspnea : difficult or painful breathing ( shortness of breath “SOB” )  Orthopnea: difficult breathing while supine

29  Laryngoplegia : paralysis of the larynx.  Bronchiectasis: chronic, irreversible enlargement of bronchi.  Bronchorrhea: an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi.  Pleuritis: inflammation of the pleura.  Pneumothorax: accumulation of air in the chest cavity.  Hydrothorax: accumulation of water in the chest cavity  Pyothorax: accumulation of pus in the chest cavity.  Hemothorax: accumulation of blood in the chest cavity.  Pneumorrhagia: bleeding from the lung.

30  Emphysma: is the progressive loss of lung function in which alveoli (air sacs) lose their elasticity and breakdown resulting in a loss of respiratory surface in the lungs.  Shortness of breath is the chief symptom (smoking frequently leads to this disorder).

31  Asthma : is a chronic allergic disorder caused by several factors such as swelling and inflammation of the lining of the airway.  Asthma characterized by episode of severe breathing difficulty, coughing and wheezing.

32  Pleural effusion: which is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. (effusion is the escape of fluid from blood or lymph vessels into cavity).

33  Pulmonary edema: is an accumulation of fluid in lung tissues. (edema means swelling)

34  Tuberculosis: which is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis.

35  Aspiration pneumonia: inhaling or drawing a foreign substances into the upper respiratory tract.

36  Pneumonia: is serious infection or inflammation of the lung in which the smallest bronchioles and alveoli fill with pus and other liquid. ( pneumon- means lung, -ia means abnormal condition)

37  Cystic fibrosis (CF) : is a genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus.

38 Diagnostic procedures

39  Laryngoscopy and Bronchoscopy : visual examination of larynx and bronchi with endoscope.  Spirometry: is instrument use to measure the procedure of ventilation of lungs by spirometer ( Spir/o means to breath / -metry means to measur e).  Bronchography : Radiological examination of the bronchial tree.  Stethoscope : instrument used to hear chest sounds.

40 Surgical procedures

41  Pulmonectomy : surgical removal of the lung or a part of a lung.  Thoracoplasty : surgical repair of the chest.  Thoracotomy : incision into (cutting into) the chest.  Tracheostomy : new opening into trachea.  Tracheolaryngotomy : incision into the trachea and larynx.  Thoracocentesis: surgical puncture using needle to remove fluid from chest.  Ventilator: device used for providing artificial respiration.


43 Instrument for visual examination = - scope

44 Visual examination by instrument = -scopy Which one is correct,Laryngoscope or laryngoscopy ?

45 Surgical opening = - stomy

46 Cutting into = -tomy

47 Treatment

48 Drug groups  Antitussive: drug inhibit or prevent cough.  Mucolytic: drug dissolve sputum.  Inhalant : drug administer by inhalation, act locally on respiratory system.  Bronchodilator: expands the opening of the air passages.

49 Medical specialist related to the respiratory system

50  Otorhinologist: Physician who specializes in diagnosis and treating diseases of ear and nose.  Pulmonologist : Physician who specializes in diagnosis and treating diseases of lung.





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