Presentation on theme: "Health Science 1101 Medical Terminology Module 4 The Respiratory System."— Presentation transcript:
Health Science 1101 Medical Terminology Module 4 The Respiratory System
The Respiratory System Basic Terms Pulmon/o: relating to the lung(s) Pulmonologist: Pulmonology: Pneumo/o or pneumon/o: relating to air or the lung(s)
Functions of the Respiratory System Provides for gas exchange brings O 2 into body excretes CO 2 from body Helps regulate blood pH Contains smell receptors Filters incoming air Produces vocal sounds Excretes water and heat
Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Upper respiratory tract includes nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx Lower respiratory tract includes trachea and lungs (bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli)
Structures of the Respiratory System Trachea divides into two primary (1 o ) bronchi Primary bronchi divide into two or three secondary (2 o ) bronchi and tertiary bronchi and so forth…
Respiratory Conditions Lung Issues Atelectasis: Collapse of lung tissue, preventing exchange of O 2 and CO 2. Lung cancer: pulmonary malignancy often attributed to cigarette smoking ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respiratory insufficiency with progressive hypoxia. Tuberculosis: Infectious disease that causes small lesions, called tubercles in the lungs.
Respiratory Conditions Lung Issues Empyema: Pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity Pleural Effusion: Abnormal presence of fluid in the pleural cavity blood: hemothorax pus: pyothorax Pneumothorax: collection of air in the pleural cavity, can cause atelectasis.
Other Respiratory Conditions COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Asthma: Chronic lung disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchi Emphysema: Chronic disease characterized by destruction of alveoli. Sweet Brown’s Bronchitis
Other Respiratory Conditions Coryza: A cold. Inflammation of the nasal passages with nasal discharge. Epistaxis: Hemorrhage from the nose, or a nosebleed. Influenza: Acute, contagious respiratory infection characterized by sudden onset of fever, chills, headache and muscle pain.
Childhood Respiratory Disorders Pertussis: Acute infectious disease characterized by distinct whoop sounding cough. AKA Whooping cough. Croup: Acute respiratory syndrome occurring in children and infants. Characterized by laryngeal obstruction, barking cough and stridor.
Childhood Respiratory Disorders Cystic fibrosis (CF): genetic disease of the exocrine glands characterized by excessive secretion of mucus causing obstruction of airways. SIDS: Sudden infant death syndrome. Sudden, unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well infant. Also called crib death.
Respiratory Testing and Treatment
Respiratory Testing Arterial Blood Gas (ABG): Measurement of arterial O 2 and CO 2. MRI CT CXR
Respiratory Testing Pulmonary function tests (PFT): Tests the ability of the lungs to efficiently exchange O 2 and CO 2. Forced vital capacity (FVC): Measurement of the amount of air that can be expelled after deep inhalation. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ): The measurement of the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled during the first second of FCV measuring. Spirometry: Measurement of FVC and FEV1 that produces a tracing on a graph.
Respiratory Treatments Bronchodilators: Drugs used to increase airflow by dilating constricted airways Corticosteroids: Hormonal agents used to reduce swelling and inflammation associated with chronic lung disease Nebulized mist treatment: Treatment using a device that sprays a fine mist that delivers medication directly into the lungs.
Respiratory Treatments Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): The use of mild air pressure to keep airways open. Postural drainage: The use of body positioning to assist in the removal of secretions lobes of the lungs, the bronchi or the pleural cavity.