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Health Science 1101 Medical Terminology Module 4 The Respiratory System.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Science 1101 Medical Terminology Module 4 The Respiratory System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Science 1101 Medical Terminology Module 4 The Respiratory System

2 The Respiratory System Basic Terms Pulmon/o: relating to the lung(s) Pulmonologist: Pulmonology: Pneumo/o or pneumon/o: relating to air or the lung(s)

3 Functions of the Respiratory System Provides for gas exchange brings O 2 into body excretes CO 2 from body Helps regulate blood pH Contains smell receptors Filters incoming air Produces vocal sounds Excretes water and heat

4 Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Upper respiratory tract includes nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx Lower respiratory tract includes trachea and lungs (bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli)

5 Structures of the Respiratory System Trachea divides into two primary (1 o ) bronchi Primary bronchi divide into two or three secondary (2 o ) bronchi and tertiary bronchi and so forth…

6 The Bronchial Tree and Breathing

7 Upper Respiratory Tract Structure Terms adenoid/o: laryng/o: nas/o or rhin/o: pharyng/o: tonsill/o: trache/o: epiglott/o

8 Lower Respiratory Tract Structure Terms alveol/o: bronchi/o: bronch/o: bronchiol/o: pleur/o:

9 Respiratory Prefixes a- brady- dys- eu- macro- micro- tachy- If -pnea means breathing: Apnea: Bradypnea: Dyspnea: Eupnea: Tachypnea:

10 Respiratory Suffixes -algia -dynia -centesis -ectasis -stenosis -osmia -pnea -scope -oxia -spasm

11 Respiratory Abbreviations Page 131 in your text book.

12 Conditions and Procedures

13 Basic Breathing Terms Inhalation or inspiration: Exhalation or expiration: Respire: External: Internal:

14 Breathing Conditions Hyperventilate: Hypoventilate: Hypoxia: Hypoxemia: Acidosis: Alkalosis:

15 Breathing Sounds crackles: Friction rub: rhonchi stridor: wheezes: Lung Sounds (crackles, wheezes and rhonchi) Croup Friction rub Stridor

16 Respiratory Conditions Lung Issues Atelectasis: Collapse of lung tissue, preventing exchange of O 2 and CO 2. Lung cancer: pulmonary malignancy often attributed to cigarette smoking ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respiratory insufficiency with progressive hypoxia. Tuberculosis: Infectious disease that causes small lesions, called tubercles in the lungs.

17 Respiratory Conditions Lung Issues Empyema: Pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity Pleural Effusion: Abnormal presence of fluid in the pleural cavity blood: hemothorax pus: pyothorax Pneumothorax: collection of air in the pleural cavity, can cause atelectasis.

18 Other Respiratory Conditions COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Asthma: Chronic lung disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchi Emphysema: Chronic disease characterized by destruction of alveoli. Sweet Brown’s Bronchitis

19 Other Respiratory Conditions Coryza: A cold. Inflammation of the nasal passages with nasal discharge. Epistaxis: Hemorrhage from the nose, or a nosebleed. Influenza: Acute, contagious respiratory infection characterized by sudden onset of fever, chills, headache and muscle pain.

20 Childhood Respiratory Disorders Pertussis: Acute infectious disease characterized by distinct whoop sounding cough. AKA Whooping cough. Croup: Acute respiratory syndrome occurring in children and infants. Characterized by laryngeal obstruction, barking cough and stridor.

21 Childhood Respiratory Disorders Cystic fibrosis (CF): genetic disease of the exocrine glands characterized by excessive secretion of mucus causing obstruction of airways. SIDS: Sudden infant death syndrome. Sudden, unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well infant. Also called crib death.

22 Respiratory Testing and Treatment

23 Respiratory Testing Arterial Blood Gas (ABG): Measurement of arterial O 2 and CO 2. MRI CT CXR

24 Respiratory Testing Pulmonary function tests (PFT): Tests the ability of the lungs to efficiently exchange O 2 and CO 2. Forced vital capacity (FVC): Measurement of the amount of air that can be expelled after deep inhalation. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ): The measurement of the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled during the first second of FCV measuring. Spirometry: Measurement of FVC and FEV1 that produces a tracing on a graph.

25 Respiratory Treatments Bronchodilators: Drugs used to increase airflow by dilating constricted airways Corticosteroids: Hormonal agents used to reduce swelling and inflammation associated with chronic lung disease Nebulized mist treatment: Treatment using a device that sprays a fine mist that delivers medication directly into the lungs.

26 Respiratory Treatments Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): The use of mild air pressure to keep airways open. Postural drainage: The use of body positioning to assist in the removal of secretions lobes of the lungs, the bronchi or the pleural cavity.


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