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Health Science 1101 Medical Terminology

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1 Health Science 1101 Medical Terminology
Module 4 The Respiratory System

2 The Respiratory System Basic Terms
Pulmon/o: relating to the lung(s) Pulmonologist: Pulmonology: Pneumo/o or pneumon/o: relating to air or the lung(s)

3 Functions of the Respiratory System
Provides for gas exchange brings O2 into body excretes CO2 from body Helps regulate blood pH Contains smell receptors Filters incoming air Produces vocal sounds Excretes water and heat

4 Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract
Upper respiratory tract includes nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx Lower respiratory tract includes trachea and lungs (bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli)

5 Structures of the Respiratory System
Trachea divides into two primary (1o) bronchi Primary bronchi divide into two or three secondary (2o) bronchi and tertiary bronchi and so forth…

6 The Bronchial Tree and Breathing

7 Upper Respiratory Tract Structure Terms
adenoid/o: laryng/o: nas/o or rhin/o: pharyng/o: tonsill/o: trache/o: epiglott/o

8 Lower Respiratory Tract Structure Terms
alveol/o: bronchi/o: bronch/o: bronchiol/o: pleur/o:

9 Respiratory Prefixes a- brady- dys- eu- macro- micro- tachy-
If -pnea means breathing: Apnea: Bradypnea: Dyspnea: Eupnea: Tachypnea:

10 Respiratory Suffixes -algia -dynia -centesis -ectasis -stenosis -osmia -pnea -scope -oxia -spasm

11 Respiratory Abbreviations Page 131 in your text book.

12 Conditions and Procedures

13 Basic Breathing Terms Inhalation or inspiration: Exhalation or expiration: Respire: External: Internal:

14 Breathing Conditions Hyperventilate: Hypoventilate: Hypoxia: Hypoxemia: Acidosis: Alkalosis:

15 Breathing Sounds crackles: Friction rub: rhonchi stridor: wheezes:
Lung Sounds (crackles, wheezes and rhonchi) Croup Friction rub Stridor

16 Respiratory Conditions Lung Issues
Atelectasis: Collapse of lung tissue, preventing exchange of O2 and CO2. Lung cancer: pulmonary malignancy often attributed to cigarette smoking ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respiratory insufficiency with progressive hypoxia. Tuberculosis: Infectious disease that causes small lesions, called tubercles in the lungs.

17 Respiratory Conditions Lung Issues
Empyema: Pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity Pleural Effusion: Abnormal presence of fluid in the pleural cavity blood: hemothorax pus: pyothorax Pneumothorax: collection of air in the pleural cavity, can cause atelectasis.

18 Other Respiratory Conditions
COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Asthma: Chronic lung disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchi Emphysema: Chronic disease characterized by destruction of alveoli. Sweet Brown’s Bronchitis

19 Other Respiratory Conditions
Coryza: A cold. Inflammation of the nasal passages with nasal discharge. Epistaxis: Hemorrhage from the nose, or a nosebleed. Influenza: Acute, contagious respiratory infection characterized by sudden onset of fever, chills, headache and muscle pain.

20 Childhood Respiratory Disorders
Pertussis: Acute infectious disease characterized by distinct whoop sounding cough. AKA Whooping cough. Croup: Acute respiratory syndrome occurring in children and infants. Characterized by laryngeal obstruction, barking cough and stridor.

21 Childhood Respiratory Disorders
Cystic fibrosis (CF): genetic disease of the exocrine glands characterized by excessive secretion of mucus causing obstruction of airways. SIDS: Sudden infant death syndrome. Sudden, unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well infant. Also called crib death.

22 Respiratory Testing and Treatment

23 Respiratory Testing Arterial Blood Gas (ABG): Measurement of arterial O2 and CO2. MRI CT CXR

24 Respiratory Testing Pulmonary function tests (PFT): Tests the ability of the lungs to efficiently exchange O2 and CO2. Forced vital capacity (FVC): Measurement of the amount of air that can be expelled after deep inhalation. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): The measurement of the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled during the first second of FCV measuring. Spirometry: Measurement of FVC and FEV1 that produces a tracing on a graph.

25 Respiratory Treatments
Bronchodilators: Drugs used to increase airflow by dilating constricted airways Corticosteroids: Hormonal agents used to reduce swelling and inflammation associated with chronic lung disease Nebulized mist treatment: Treatment using a device that sprays a fine mist that delivers medication directly into the lungs.

26 Respiratory Treatments
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): The use of mild air pressure to keep airways open. Postural drainage: The use of body positioning to assist in the removal of secretions lobes of the lungs, the bronchi or the pleural cavity.

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