Presentation on theme: "Another Brick in the Wall Pink Floyd (1979) LYRICS: We don’t need no education. We don’t need no thought control."— Presentation transcript:
Another Brick in the Wall Pink Floyd (1979) LYRICS: We don’t need no education. We don’t need no thought control. No dark sarcasm in the classroom. Teachers leave them kids alone. Hey! Teachers! Leave them kids alone! All in all it’s just another brick in the wall. All in all you’re just another brick in the wall.
Culture is the sum of socially transmitted ideas, practices, and material objects that people create to overcome real-life problems. Culture gives us guidelines for how to act.
Ethnocentrism involves judging another culture exclusively by the standards of one’s own. Cultural relativism is the belief that all elements of all cultures should be respected as equally valid.
Rationalization is the application of the most efficient means to achieve given goals and the often unintended, negative consequences of doing so. A bureaucracy is a large, impersonal organization composed of many clearly defined positions arranged in a hierarchy. It has a permanent, salaried staff of qualified experts and written goals, rules and procedures. Staff members strive to achieve goals more efficiently.
Consumerism is a lifestyle that involves defining one’s self in terms of the goods one purchases.
By encouraging people to shop till they drop, it increases consumer debt, which is at record levels, and it forces people to work more than they need to, adding to stress and depression. It encourages environmentally dangerous levels of consumption. It stifles dissent and draws attention from pressing social issues.
TraditionFocusMain QuestionFashion Interpretation FunctionalistValues How do the institutions of society contribute to social stability? Fashion cycles help to preserve the class system by allowing people of different rank to evaluate and distinguish themselves. ConflictInequality How do privileged groups maintain advantages and subordinate groups seek to increase theirs, often causing social change in the process? Fashion cycles exist so the fashion industry can earn profits; fashion distracts consumers from social problems but the resulting equilibrium is precarious. Symbolic interactionist Meaning How do individuals communicate to make their social settings meaningful? Because fashions are meaningful, fashion cycles allow people to communicate their identity, which is always in flux. FeministPatriarchyWhich social structures and interaction processes maintain male dominance and female subordination? Fashion cycles often “imprison” women and diminish them by turning them into sexual objects; but they can also empower them. Theoretical Traditions in Sociology
What is deemed normal? ◦ For your age group?
is the process of learning culture and becoming aware of yourself as you interact with others.
A. Agree B. Disagree
1. The characteristics of members of each species vary widely. 2. Species members with more adaptive characteristics are more likely to survive until reproduction. 3. Therefore, the species characteristics that endure are those that increase the survival chances of the species.
1. Identify a supposedly universal form of human behaviour. 2. Make up a story about why this behaviour increases survival chances. 3. Assert that the behaviour in question cannot be changed.
Number of Sex Partners by Respondent’s Sex, USA, 2002 (in %) malefemale number of sex partners 0 or more than total n 1,004 1,233
Number of Sex Partners by Respondent’s Sex, USA, 2002, Married People Only (in %) malefemale number of sex partners 0 or more than total n
Family Schools Peer groups Media and technology
Pierre Bourdieu ( ) HABITUS : a psychic structure composed of a set of unconscious dispositions that include patterns of thought, outlook, sensibilities, and taste.
DEVELOPS OVER OUR LIVES AS A RESULT OF OUR SOCIAL STATUS IN THE SOCIETY AND THE ACCUMULATION OF SOCIAL INTERACTIONS PARTICULAR TO THAT STATUS. STATUSES INCLUDE THOSE ASSOCIATED WITH RACE, CLASS, ETHNICITY AND GENDER
*Middle-Class: teens acquire a habitus commensurate with their class position, including the valuing of education, appreciation for abstract thinking and cultural production (like art), and an orientation to the world that emphasizes power and control. *Working-Class: teens acquire a habitus including the value of practical work (e.g., the trades), concrete thinking over abstraction, an orientation to the world that emphasizes “getting by”, without the expectation of achieveing power.
How do we know what we know? Historically: Religion o Offered answers to most of life’s questions (truth/false, right/wrong) o Imbued every aspect of human social life with meaning (birth, death, rites of passage) o Religious beliefs so common that most societies had no word for religion 25
Religion is ______? You can also tweet your thoughts with #uoftsocrel on Twitter 26
Means different things – No consensus on definitions Substantive definitions – Focus on what religion is 1)to be religious is to ‘believe’ in something 2)to be religious entails actions 3)to be religious involves emotions 4)religion is a social phenomenon 27
Functional definitions – Focus on what religion does 1)provides meaning and purpose to life 2)promotes social cohesion and a sense of belonging 3)provides social control Many definitions attempt to combine both, such as sociologist Emile Durkheim: Religion as a system of beliefs, symbols, rituals, based on some sacred or supernatural realm, that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a community 28
1.Christianity: 2.1 billion 2.Islam: 1.5 billion 3.Hinduism: 900 million 4.Chinese folk: 394 million 5.Buddhism: 376 million 6.Sikhism: 23 million 7.Juche: 19 million 8.Spiritism: 15 million 9.Judaism: 14 million 10.Falun Gong: 10 million 11.Baha'i: 7 million 12.Cao Dai: 5 million 13.Confucianism 5 million 14.New Age 5 million 15.Jainism: 4 million 16.Shinto: 4 million Secular/Nonreligious/Agnostic/Atheist: 1.1 billion Source: Bibby, Reginald W. (2011a). Beyond the Gods & Back: Religion’s Rise and Demise and Why it Matters. Lethbridge, AB: Project Canada Books, p.201. Drawn from and 2010
Policemen and soldiers in Cameroon gather around the vehicle in which seven members of a French family were riding before being kidnapped near the Nigerian border on Feb. 19,
PM establishes Office of Religious Freedom to promote freedom of religion around the world Stephen Harper looks on as Dr. Andrew Bennett, right, shakes hands with Muslim cleric Lai Khan Malik in Vaughan (Feb 20 th ) 31
Religious beliefs vary in content and intensity Religious practices vary in form and frequency Due to structure of society and our place in it Effect: religious impulse takes thousands of forms The task of the sociology of religion is to account for these variations 32
Sociology: Systematic study of human behavior in social context Bibby: Science and religion are compatible Religion – about faith Science – limits itself to perceivable, ‘observable parts’ of religion For example 1. Written texts 2. Patterns of behaviors 3. Individuals’ opinions about religious matters 33
How many and what kinds of people are involved in religious groups? Why does one religion predominate here, another there? Who believes in life after death and what do individuals think will happen when they die? The extent to which people have spiritual needs, and what they mean by spirituality? What is the impact the religious involvement has on individuals and societies? Are we becoming more or less religious? Implications of this? Under what circumstances does religion act as a source of social stability and act as a force for social change? 34
Wide array of research such as: Religion and organizations (churches, sects, cults, etc) Religion and education (role in schools) Religion and gender (religious leadership) Religion and politics (religious terrorism) Religion and law (Charter of Rights and Freedom) Religion and mass media (internet) In the Sociology Department Prof. Bryant (religion and history) and Prof. Schieman (religion and mental health) 35
Analyzes how individuals, social institutions, and cultures construe God or the sacred How these ideas penetrate public culture and individual lives Implications of those interpretations for individual, institutional, and societal processes The sociological study of religion is as old as the discipline of sociology itself 36
Religion’s origin is social People living in a community come to share common sentiments that form a collective conscience - ‘God’ is the group experiencing itself Leads people to designate some objects as sacred – or totems - (deserving of profound respect) and others as profane – (objects of the everyday world) 37
Cross held by Pope Benedict XVI, the head of the Catholic Church 38
Masjid al- Haram “The Sacred Mosque” built around the Kaaba in Mecca 39
Menorah: a symbol of Judaism since ancient times and the emblem of the modern state of Israel 40
Religious beliefs articulate the nature of the sacred and its symbols Religious rituals provide guidelines as to how people should act in the presence of the sacred Religion creates and reinforces social solidarity (contributes to social stability - through establishment of moral standards, and sense of belonging) 41
Overemphasizes religion’s role in maintaining social cohesion Downplays religion’s dysfunctions - strongly held beliefs can generate social conflict (i.e. Fundamentalism) When religion does increase social cohesion, it often reinforces social inequality 42
Religion is a human creation Religion is “the opium of the people”: it soothes the disadvantaged by minimizing the importance of “this world” Religion encourages people to accept existing social inequalities instead of changing their oppressive conditions Religion unites people under ‘false consciousness’ according to which they believe that have common interests with members of the dominant class 43
Historically some religions teach that the existing social arrangements of a society represent what God desires Many rulers have historically declared their rule was legitimated by God Conflict between religious groups (religious wars) Conflict within religious groups (splinter group leaving an existing one) Conflict between a religious group and the larger society (conflict over religion in the classroom) 44
Religion can promote change towards equality (abolish slavery, civil rights movements) Sense of community that some people find in religion is a positive force Some contemporary religious movements challenge the rich and powerful by advocating for income redistribution in society (i.e. liberation theology originated in Latin America) 45
Religion is oriented toward this world – religious ideas and behaviour evident in everyday conduct Weber examined the possibility that Protestant Reformation strongly influenced moral tone of capitalism in Western world through adoption of Protestant ethic Weber argued that ideas – whether true or false - represent a person’s definition of reality and therefore have potential to influence behaviour 46
Need to interpret action by understanding actor’s motives (Verstehen) Researchers should place themselves in roles of those being studied Comparative and historical studies of religion and found that god-conceptions are strongly related to economic, social, and political conditions in which people live 47
Correlation between Protestant ethic and the strength of capitalist development is weaker than Weber thought Weber’s followers have not always applied the Protestant ethic thesis as carefully as Weber did 48
Durkheim – Religion and Social Solidarity Marx – Religion and Social Conflict Weber – Religion and Social Change 49
Religion is a common human response to the fact that we all stand at the edge of an abyss. It helps us cope with the terrifying fact that we must die. It offers us immortality, the promise of better times to come, and the security of benevolent spirits who look over us. It provides meaning and purpose in a world that might otherwise seem cruel and senseless.
Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, just as it is the spirit of a spiritless situation. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is required for their real happiness. The demand to give up the illusion about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusions. - Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right
“…divine control involves the extent that one believes that God exercises a commanding authority over the course and direction of his or her own life” - Schieman, Pudrovska, and Milkie 2005 “The belief that there exists a superhuman, supernatural intelligence who deliberately designed and created the universe and everything in it” - Richard Dawkins 2007
Individuals in disadvantaged socioeconomic conditions are more likely to be religious in order to compensate for their plight and acquire otherwise unattainable rewards - Glock and Stark (1965)
Mega Churches ◦ Non for profit, (For profit Institutions).. ◦ x x
Understanding what we mean by ethnicity and race. The importance of historical context Trends in global migration Being “ethnic” (non-white) in the U.S. How ethnicity and race affect everyone 58
Is the child of a biracial couple (black and white) black or white? Mixed? Is Judaism a religion or an ethnicity? Both? Race and ethnicity are terms used every day but rarely explored. 59
Ethnicity refers to the distinct cultural norms and values of a social group. Characteristics of ethnic groups include (to varying degrees): ◦ Shared history ◦ Religion and culture ◦ Kin or ancestry ◦ Sense of shared destiny ◦ Language 60
Recent research has shown that because of intergroup marriage, for many whites living in the United States, ethnicity has become a choice. For many, ethnicity is largely opted out of altogether. For nonwhites, opting out of ethnicity is not a choice. 61
Race refers to an externally imposed system of social categorization and stratification. No true biological races exist; rather, human groups must be placed on a continuum. Typically, race refers to some set of physical characteristics granted importance by a society. Race is socially constructed. 62
The actual imposition of some racial schema on society is called racialization. The process involves both formal and informal inequities, including segregated schools and businesses, along with differentiated rights. These inequalities shape the lives of all those in the racialized society. 63
Racism is a form of prejudice and/or discrimination based on physical differences. There are many layers of racism ◦ Individual consciousness and behavior ◦ Ideologies of supremacy ◦ Institutional racism 64
We must consider history when working to understand racism today. Modern racism goes back to the history of European colonization of much of the world. The colonizers had strongly ethnocentric attitudes of racial supremacy. 66
Those ideologies led to a sometimes paternalistic form of racism, linked to developing scientific racism. Long-standing cultural narratives of white and black—good or purity and evil or impurity—combined with scientific racism helped to deepen and then perpetuate racialization. 67
Assimilation Melting pot Multiculturalism Segregation Problems: both segregation and aggressive assimilation have led to ethnic conflict 68
Trends in global migration today: ◦ Acceleration ◦ Diversification ◦ Globalization ◦ Feminization ◦ Transnationalism Global diasporas 69
From early colonization on, racialization has been part of the story of the United States. Africans were brought as slaves in huge numbers: nearly 4 million by Their responses to slavery varied from rebellion to passivity to cultural development to hostility. With abolition, life for former slaves did not change quickly or evenly. 71
1820–1920: over 30 million immigrants came to the United States voluntarily, mostly from Europe Not all European groups were equally welcomed, nor were Asian immigrants. In 1924 the National Origins Act was passed, restricting immigration. In 1965 that law was rescinded and today’s immigration patterns began. 72
Until the 1960s, African Americans had few legal rights or protections. 1954: Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas 1950s: Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr. 1964: President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act into law There remains some question about the success of the civil rights movement. 73
Latinos, or Hispanics, are not a single, unified group aside from their shared language. The three main groups in the United States all have very different histories: ◦ Mexican Americans ◦ Puerto Ricans ◦ Cuban Americans 74
Today there are increasing numbers of Central American immigrants. Latinos now make up a larger percentage of the population than African Americans, with approximately 15 percent versus 12 percent (as of 2008). 75
Like Latinos, Asians are not comprised of a single group of people. The largest groups in the United States include Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos, though there are sizeable populations of other groups. 76
Asians have a history of extreme discrimination in U.S. history. Even so, as a group they have done very well and are now often referred to as a “model minority.” Asians currently make up about 4 percent of the U.S. population. 77
To say that a society is racialized is to say that it has a racial system of stratification. The United States is a racially stratified society, and we can see this in many places: ◦ Educational attainment ◦ Income ◦ Residence ◦ Wealth 78
We can also see racial inequality in: ◦ Political representation ◦ Residential segregation ◦ Criminal justice system ◦ Health and wellness 82
Over time, white ethnics have integrated well. Asian Americans have also done quite well when looked at as a whole. Cubans have done very well overall. African Americans, Native Americans, and Puerto Ricans have not fared as well. 83
There are a variety of factors that help explain why some groups find more success than others. ◦ Voluntary immigration versus forced minority status ◦ Type and degree of discrimination faced ◦ Ability to blend into the “mainstream” ◦ Affinity of group culture to U.S. culture and values 84
Prejudice is an attitude that people employ to judge others on their group’s real or imagined characteristics. Discrimination is unfair treatment of people due to their perceived group membership.
DNA is a chemical that contains the genetic instructions for all living organisms. When people have a child, the DNA of the mates combines and the child inherits the parents’ DNA. DNA consists of 3 billion pairs of four types of molecules. Different sequences of molecules result in different characteristics (e.g., skin colour). 99.5% of the DNA of all people is identical. The remaining 0.5% of DNA may differ between any two people; these differences (known as Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, SNPs or “snips”) are the focus of research in the field of comparative genomics.
Snips influence readily apparent physical differences such as skin pigmentation and less apparent physical differences such as the capacity to absorb and utilize various chemicals. Identifying snips of the latter type enables the production of “designer” drugs that are best suited to groups with unique genetic characteristics. Significantly, comparative genomics research focuses on differences between socially distinct groups, such as blacks and whites. Yet genetic diversity is greatest among people of African origin, and genetic variation within other racial groups may be pharmacologically significant.
There is no biological evidence that races differ in ways that explain behavioural differences. Behavioural differences between racial groups are not constant. Behavioural differences between racial groups vary by social circumstance.
RACE & ETHNICITY ARE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTS USED TO CREATE AND MAINTAIN SYSTEMS OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY
Genocide: group extermination Expulsion: forcible removal of group from a territory Slavery: legal ownership of a group Segregation: spatial and institutional separation of groups Pluralism: retention of identity and equal access to basic social resources (Canada today) Assimilation: cultural blending of majority and minority groups (Canada today)
Time Rewards Rewards expected Rewards received Intolerable gap People feel relatively deprived when they experience an intolerable gap between the social rewards they think they deserve and the social rewards they expect to receive. Social rewards are widely valued goods, including money, education, security, prestige, etc. Accordingly, people are most likely to rebel against authority when rising expectations (brought on by, say, rapid economic growth and migration) are met by a sudden decline in social rewards (due to, say, economic recession or war).
Resource mobilization theory is based on the idea that social movements can emerge only when disadvantaged people can marshal the means necessary to challenge authority. Foremost among the resources they need to challenge authority is the capacity to forge strong social ties among themselves. Other important resources that allow disadvantaged people to challenge authority include jobs, money, arms, and access to means of spreading their ideas.
Characteristics of social movements Small, local, violen t Large, national, less violent Large, international, less violent Cause of changeGrowth of state Globalization
A war is a violent, armed conflict between politically distinct groups who fight to protect or increase their control of territory. Wars may take place: between countries (interstate war) special type: colonial war, which involves a colony engaging in armed conflict with an imperial power to gain independence within countries (civil or societal war)
Income Category Percent Note: Democracy = rule by the citizenry; autocracy = absolute rule by a single person or party; intermediate = some elements of democracy (e.g, regular elections) and some of autocracy (e.g., no institutional checks on presidential power).
The modern state increasingly monopolized the means of coercion. As a result, regional, ethnic, and religious wars declined, and interstate warfare became the norm. While conflict became more deadly, civilian life was pacified.
There have been fewer interstate wars and more civil wars, guerilla wars, massacres, terrorist attacks, and instances of attempted ethnic cleansing and genocide perpetrated by militias, mercenaries, paramilitaries, suicide bombers, and so on. Large-scale violence has increasingly been visited on civilian rather than military populations.
Decolonization and separatist movements roughly doubled the number of weak, independent states in the world. The USA, the USSR, China and Cuba often subsidized and sent arms to domestic opponents of regimes that were aligned against them. The expansion of international trade in contraband provided separatist rebels with new means of support.