2Another Brick in the Wall Pink Floyd (1979)LYRICS: We don’t need no education. We don’t need no thought control. No dark sarcasm in the classroom. Teachers leave them kids alone. Hey! Teachers! Leave them kids alone! All in all it’s just another brick in the wall. All in all you’re just another brick in the wall.
3Culture is the sum of socially transmitted ideas, practices, and material objects that people create to overcome real-life problems. Culture gives us guidelines for how to act.
4Ethnocentrism involves judging another culture exclusively by the standards of one’s own. Cultural relativism is the belief that all elements of all cultures should be respected as equally valid.
5Rationalization is the application of the most efficient means to achieve given goals and the often unintended, negative consequences of doing so.A bureaucracy is a large, impersonal organization composed of many clearly defined positions arranged in a hierarchy. It has a permanent, salaried staff of qualified experts and written goals, rules and procedures. Staff members strive to achieve goals more efficiently.
6Consumerism is a lifestyle that involves defining one’s self in terms of the goods one purchases.
7Negative Consequences of Consumerism By encouraging people to shop till they drop, it increases consumer debt, which is at record levels, and it forces people to work more than they need to, adding to stress and depression.It encourages environmentally dangerous levels of consumption.It stifles dissent and draws attention from pressing social issues.
10Theoretical Traditions in Sociology Fashion Interpretation FocusMain QuestionFashion InterpretationFunctionalistValuesHow do the institutions of society contribute to social stability?Fashion cycles help to preserve the class system by allowing people of different rank to evaluate and distinguish themselves.ConflictInequalityHow do privileged groups maintain advantages and subordinate groups seek to increase theirs, often causing social change in the process?Fashion cycles exist so the fashion industry can earn profits; fashion distracts consumers from social problems but the resulting equilibrium is precarious.Symbolic interactionistMeaningHow do individuals communicate to make their social settings meaningful?Because fashions are meaningful, fashion cycles allow people to communicate their identity, which is always in flux.FeministPatriarchyWhich social structures and interaction processes maintain male dominance and female subordination?Fashion cycles often “imprison” women and diminish them by turning them into sexual objects; but they can also empower them.
11Societal Norms in U.S.What is deemed normal?For your age group?
12SOCIALIZATIONis the process of learning culture and becoming aware of yourself as you interact with others.
13Men are less sexually faithful to their partners than women because of biological differences between the sexes.AgreeDisagree
14Darwin’s Evolutionary Theory The characteristics of members of each species vary widely.Species members with more adaptive characteristics are more likely to survive until reproduction.Therefore, the species characteristics that endure are those that increase the survival chances of the species.
15The Logic of Sociobiology 1. Identify a supposedly universal form of human behaviour.2. Make up a story about why this behaviour increases survival chances.3. Assert that the behaviour in question cannot be changed.
16Number of Sex Partners by Respondent’s Sex, USA, 2002 (in %) male femalenumber of sex partners0 ormore thantotaln , ,233
17Number of Sex Partners by Respondent’s Sex, USA, 2002, Married People Only (in %) male femalenumber of sex partners0 ormore thantotaln
20SOCIALIZING AGENTSFamilySchoolsPeer groupsMedia and technology
21HABITUS Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002) HABITUS: a psychic structure composed of a set of unconscious dispositions that include patterns of thought, outlook, sensibilities, and taste.
22ORIGINS OF THE HABITUSDEVELOPS OVER OUR LIVES AS A RESULT OF OUR SOCIAL STATUS IN THE SOCIETY AND THE ACCUMULATION OF SOCIAL INTERACTIONS PARTICULAR TO THAT STATUS.STATUSES INCLUDE THOSE ASSOCIATED WITH RACE, CLASS, ETHNICITY AND GENDER
23BOURDIEU’S CLASS HABITUS *Middle-Class: teens acquire a habitus commensurate with their class position, including the valuing of education, appreciation for abstract thinking and cultural production (like art), and an orientation to the world that emphasizes power and control.*Working-Class: teens acquire a habitus including the value of practical work (e.g., the trades), concrete thinking over abstraction, an orientation to the world that emphasizes “getting by”, without the expectation of achieveing power.
50William James (1902)Religion is a common human response to the fact that we all stand at the edge of an abyss. It helps us cope with the terrifying fact that we must die. It offers us immortality, the promise of better times to come, and the security of benevolent spirits who look over us. It provides meaning and purpose in a world that might otherwise seem cruel and senseless.
51Karl Marx (1843)Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, just as it is the spirit of a spiritless situation. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is required for their real happiness. The demand to give up the illusion about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusions Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right
54DIVINE CONTROL“…divine control involves the extent that one believes that God exercises a commanding authority over the course and direction of his or her own life” - Schieman, Pudrovska, and Milkie 2005 “The belief that there exists a superhuman, supernatural intelligence who deliberately designed and created the universe and everything in it” - Richard Dawkins 2007
55DEPRIVATION-COMPENSATION THESIS Individuals in disadvantaged socioeconomic conditions are more likely to be religious in order to compensate for their plight and acquire otherwise unattainable rewards- Glock and Stark (1965)
56Religion in the U.S. Mega Churches Non for profit, (For profit Institutions)..x
57Ethnicity and RaceMany of the broad statements that I’ve made about gender inequality also apply to issues of race and ethnicity—power, privilege and property have been, and continue to be, distributed unequally.Also, the racial and ethnic categories in which we put so much stock are—like gender—the products of cultural meanings, not biology or even geography.I think before getting into the topic of race and ethnicity, it’s important to remind you that much, but not all, work done in this subfield of sociology remains under the broader heading of social stratification. In other words, for many sociologists, the study of race (especially) is primarily the study of unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on racial groupings.
58The big issues Understanding what we mean by ethnicity and race. The importance of historical contextTrends in global migrationBeing “ethnic” (non-white) in the U.S.How ethnicity and race affect everyoneThere are many important issues we could cover in terms of ethnicity and race, but for starters, I’ll focus on these:We need to really know what we mean when we use the words race and ethnicity. The two are certainly connected in many ways, but they are not one and the same.We need to put current issues revolving around race and ethnicity into their historical context. There is no way to get a full picture of what is happening today without knowing what came before.I will introduce you to some of the most important trends in global migration: What is changing? What remains the same? Who is going where?Once we have a sense of these underlying issues, I will talk about what it means to be “ethnic” in the United States today. Mostly this term is (incorrectly) used to refer to those who are not white, and that is the sense in which I will pursue this concern.And finally, we need to recognize that whether we are white, black, Latino, Asian, some combination, or something different, the way our society handles—or doesn’t handle—ethnicity and race affects us all.
59Race and ethnicity are complicated Is the child of a biracial couple (black and white) black or white? Mixed?Is Judaism a religion or an ethnicity? Both?Race and ethnicity are terms used every day but rarely explored.What are race and ethnicity? What is the relationship between the two? What do we call someone who has parents of different races or ethnicities? What groups count as ethnic groups, as opposed to something different?The words race and ethnicity are part of everyday language, but they are often used without much precision. What I want to do to get us started is to clarify just what sociologists mean when they discuss race and ethnicity.59
60Defining ethnicityEthnicity refers to the distinct cultural norms and values of a social group.Characteristics of ethnic groups include (to varying degrees):Shared historyReligion and cultureKin or ancestrySense of shared destinyLanguageWe’ll start with ethnicity. The word ethnicity comes from the Greek ethnos, which means nation. This term was meant to refer to those with a common national ancestry and culture. The term ethnicity itself is relatively new—dating to middle of the twentieth century—and has a somewhat looser definition, but certainly rests on the original Greek. Ethnic groups are those that share a set of distinctive norms and values, and ethnicity is the word we use to describe those groups.What are the main characteristics of ethnic groups?-Shared history-Shared religion and culture-Common kin or ancestry (real or imagined)-Sense of shared future or destiny-Common languageSometimes a connection to a shared homeland (usually not the place where the group currently resides) is also considered one of these characteristics.It is important to recognize that different groups concern themselves more or less with each of these aspects of ethnicity.60
61Ethnic optionsRecent research has shown that because of intergroup marriage, for many whites living in the United States, ethnicity has become a choice.For many, ethnicity is largely opted out of altogether.For nonwhites, opting out of ethnicity is not a choice.What this implies, and correctly so, is that not all ethnic groups are structured in some precise, formulaic way. For some groups, religion and culture are the most significant tie; for others, it is a shared history of triumph or tragedy; for others still, it is a shared language that unites people in the face of some other group. Another way of thinking about this is to say that there are ethnic groups based largely on religion, on race, on nationality, on language, or even on shared interests.In the United States, one thing that has happened in the face of our ongoing national conversation about diversity is that we often see ethnicity as only being a factor for non-whites. Sure, some of us claim Irish or Jewish or German or Italian ancestry, but by and large, we treat ethnicity as something reserved for racial minorities. One result of this is that for whites, ethnicity has become, according sociologist Mary Waters, optional. That simply means that whites have the choice to pick up ethnicity when it suits them: for holidays, parades, or for much more meaningful associations. We do not see the ethnicity of the dominant group, only of the non-dominant ones.For non-whites, whose racial identity is worn on their skin, among other places, there is no choice: They are categorized as having a particular racial and ethnic identity, whether they care to adopt it or not. Ethnicity is, in these cases, too frequently used as a tool of discrimination or power wielding.
62Defining raceRace refers to an externally imposed system of social categorization and stratification.No true biological races exist; rather, human groups must be placed on a continuum.Typically, race refers to some set of physical characteristics granted importance by a society.Race is socially constructed.I’ve suggested that, in large part, race is a special case of ethnicity. I believe that is correct, but for now, I also want to talk about race on its own terms.What is race? Race is a form of social categorization, imposed by those with power, based on some physical characteristic that is given meaning by a society. Characteristics like skin color, eye shape, thrust of the jaw, and hair color have all been used to categorize those of certain “racial” groups. In reality, there are no biological races. There is as much variation within so-called racial groups as between them, which tells us that human groups exist on a continuum, not in three or four distinct racial categories. Race, then, is socially constructed.It is imperative to point out here that these categories are not harmless. Rather, racial categories are defined by those with the power to organize societies and are used to construct often rigid systems of stratification. Think about the slave South in the United States, about apartheid in South Africa, or even about racial discrimination, which continues in the world’s most developed societies even today.62
63RacializationThe actual imposition of some racial schema on society is called racialization.The process involves both formal and informal inequities, including segregated schools and businesses, along with differentiated rights.These inequalities shape the lives of all those in the racialized society.Racialization is the term we use to describe the process of imposing a racial system on a society. This happens through both formal and informal channels.The formal paths to racialization include passing laws and enacting social policies that differentiate rights and responsibilities based on race. Can you think of some of these? Possible answers include limiting access to stores, seating, and other public spaces; writing anti-miscegenation laws; formal exclusionary policies from social groups, and so on.Informal paths include social prejudice and discrimination via exclusion, violence, and the threat of violence. Can you think of other informal ways racialization is carried out?As you can see, racialization affects the lives of everyone living in the society. For some it means unearned rights and privileges, and for others, undeserved hardship and difficulty, and even danger.
64RacismRacism is a form of prejudice and/or discrimination based on physical differences.There are many layers of racismIndividual consciousness and behaviorIdeologies of supremacyInstitutional racismAnother way of thinking about the effects of racialization is to consider racism. We all have a sense of what racism is, but again, it’s important to map it out as clearly as possible.Racism is a multi-layered phenomenon. There is active racism, which involves acts of discrimination, whereby people are disadvantaged directly as a result of their race by individuals or groups. There are ideologies of supremacy in which members of one racial or ethnic group order their lives in part with the assumption that their group is simply better—superior—to others. This could lead to active racism, or it could simply reside in the consciousness of individuals. Finally, there is institutional racism, which is particularly difficult to identify and remedy. This is a kind of racism that exists in the very structure of society, the assumptions built into corporate and legal policies, and the ways that groups interact. Institutional racism is often less the result of overt, individual racism than an acceptance of the system of racial stratification already in place and of the status quo.
65Concepts related to racism PrejudiceDiscriminationStereotypesScapegoatsMinority groupsIn defining racism I’ve used a few terms that need to be better defined. Let me start with prejudice and discrimination. Anyone know the difference between these two terms? Prejudice is holding preconceived ideas about people (individuals or groups) based on some characteristic; it may be positive or negative. Discrimination is actually acting on those ideas in a negative way, such that it disadvantages members of the group. It is possible to be prejudiced but not discriminate, and vice versa. Someone who does both is what we would likely call a racist.Stereotypes are sets of ideas that we believe describe some category of people. These are usually fairly rigid and difficult to change. Scapegoats are groups of people that are blamed for problems. Can you think of any examples of either of these contexts? Think about, for example, the Salem witch trials as an example of scapegoating. Or think of the academic success of Asian students as an example of stereotyping.Finally, let’s define minority groups. Sociologically, when we use the term minority group we are referring to power, not just numbers. In other words, all groups (racial, ethnic, religious, etc.) other than the dominant group (again, think power) are minority groups.
66Colonialism and racism We must consider history when working to understand racism today.Modern racism goes back to the history of European colonization of much of the world.The colonizers had strongly ethnocentric attitudes of racial supremacy.Now that you have a better sense of what race and ethnicity are, along with some of the related vocabulary and processes, let’s move on to a bit of history. How did we get where we are regarding race, racialization, and ethnic conflict?To understand racism today, we have to go back at least as far as the colonial era. Beginning in the fifteenth century, the European powers—at that time England, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and France—set out to acquire all the world had to offer. They did this by colonizing much of the globe: the Americas, much of Asia, South Africa, North Africa, Australia As they settled in these places in an effort to bring glory and riches to their home countries, a relationship of racism and drastic inequality developed. The colonizers had strongly ethnocentric attitudes of racial superiority, sometimes based on quasi-scientific racism, that allowed them to dehumanize and exploit the natives.66
67Colonialism and racism Those ideologies led to a sometimes paternalistic form of racism, linked to developing scientific racism.Long-standing cultural narratives of white and black—good or purity and evil or impurity—combined with scientific racism helped to deepen and then perpetuate racialization.Undergirding this pragmatic, exploitative relationship were cultural narratives defining white as pure and good and black (or dark) as evil and bad. Such stories, deeply held and supported by romanticism and scientific racism, helped perpetuate racialization in the colonies. The natives were evil and subhuman and needed the strong hand of the colonizers to see the light and to live correctly. It was this guise of helping the natives that is referred to as paternalism.As you might guess, and in fact, as you know at least from American history, the natives were less than appreciative.
68Models of ethnic coexistence in the United States AssimilationMelting potMulticulturalismSegregationProblems: both segregation and aggressive assimilation have led to ethnic conflictBut not every situation of ethnic/racial coexistence has to be so harsh and unlivable as the colonies once were. In fact, with the colonies now nation-states themselves, they too must figure out how to deal with diversity. What I’m going to do now is quickly go over four modern models of ethnic coexistence that have been or are being tried somewhere in the world. I’ll talk about them in the context of the United States.Broadly speaking, assimilation is a model of coexistence that requires those outside the dominant group to conform to dominant group norms and leave their own group’s culture and practices behind. The melting pot is a model that claims that everyone will continue to change as more and more groups are brought into the mix. Multiculturalism, based in large part on earlier models of cultural pluralism, seeks a society in which all groups are respected and maintained within a unified political and economic framework. Finally, there is segregation, which is, of course, antithetical to coexistence, but has been tried and re-tried in strongly racialized societies.The first three of these approaches have pros and cons, which we can certainly discuss. The big problems can come from overly aggressive versions of assimilation—wherein minority groups feel coerced rather than invited in—and from segregation. Both of these possibilities have led to horrible periods in world history.
69Studying migration Trends in global migration today: Global diasporas AccelerationDiversificationGlobalizationFeminizationTransnationalismGlobal diasporasPart of what leads to ethnic diversity is, of course, global migration. Let’s spend a few minutes, then, thinking about the major trends in migration today, which have shifted dramatically in more recent years.First off, there is more migration now than ever before. Second, immigration flows have diversified such that countries now receive immigrants from more countries than used to be the case. Third, people now enter and leave more countries than in earlier times. Not everyone is headed to the same one or two countries, and ease of movement has opened the door to more globalized migration. Fourth, women now make up a larger proportion of migrants, as they have become an increasingly important component of labor markets. Unfortunately this includes their often-forced participation in global sex trafficking. Finally, there is the shift toward transnationalism, wherein migration flows are not entirely permanent; people, money, and communication allow people to be in more than one place and have a less rigid, more flexible sense of home.Another ongoing topic in the study of migration is that of global diasporas. Diasporas are cases where some ethnic group has been forced to vacate its homeland and its members have scattered around the world. Even so, they have maintained some sense of group identity and feel connected to others, even those who live very far away. The two most frequently discussed diasporas have been the African Diaspora and the Jewish Diaspora.
71Race in U.S. history—Slavery From early colonization on, racialization has been part of the story of the United States.Africans were brought as slaves in huge numbers: nearly 4 million by 1780.Their responses to slavery varied from rebellion to passivity to cultural development to hostility.With abolition, life for former slaves did not change quickly or evenly.As you are well aware, race has been, and continues to be a significant part of the American story. In the earliest days of what is now the United States, African slaves were brought here in huge numbers—nearly 4 million by It was, especially in the southern colonies, and then states, their hard work that supported the growth of the plantation economy. Slaves were separated from their families, sold at open markets, and forced to live and work for owners who thought of them as less than (or at least less) human.This situation provoked a variety of responses among slaves, including outright rebellion and hostility, to passivity, to development of a uniquely African American culture, and occasionally, however counterintuitively, to close ties with owners.After the Civil War, which was fought primarily for economic and political reasons, most blacks expected abolition to utterly change the social structure. While it did in certain ways, the changes were uneven, slow, and in other ways, lacking altogether. Many rights that we take for granted today—like voting, equal opportunity, and equal education—were denied to former slaves, and to all blacks living in the United States, for many years to come.
72Race in U.S. history—Immigration 1820–1920: over 30 million immigrants came to the United States voluntarily, mostly from EuropeNot all European groups were equally welcomed, nor were Asian immigrants.In 1924 the National Origins Act was passed, restricting immigration.In 1965 that law was rescinded and today’s immigration patterns began.Immigration has also been, and continues to be, a significant part of the American story. Slaves, of course, are different from immigrants as they did not come to this country voluntarily. , But immigrants who did choose to come here, seeking opportunities, freedom, and prosperity, often faced the experience of racism, too.Most immigrants prior to 1880 were from northern and western Europe, and mostly from the colonial powers. The biggest exception here was the large flow of Irish immigrants in the middle of the nineteenth century. After 1880, immigrants from southern and eastern Europe began to arrive, and this was none too pleasing to those already here. The Irish, the Slavs, the Greeks, the Italians, eastern European Jews, the Poles—all of these groups were racialized and seen as inferior to the largely Protestant establishment.It was late in the nineteenth century that the United States also saw a significant influx of, first, Chinese, and then Japanese, immigrants. , These groups came mainly to work as cheap labor out West, and they too were treated with blatant prejudice and hatred.It was, in fact, the very high numbers of these less-than-welcome immigrants just after the turn of the century that led to a highly charged campaign to restrict immigration. This campaign succeeded in 1924 but was reversed more than forty years later, in 1965.
73Race in U.S. history—Civil rights Until the 1960s, African Americans had few legal rights or protections.1954: Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas1950s: Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr.1964: President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act into lawThere remains some question about the success of the civil rights movement.Beginning in the 1950s and culminating with the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964, the United States waded through a very difficult period of coming to terms—or for some, not coming to terms—with the combination of a racially and ethnically diverse population, laws that discriminated against many groups, a constitution that required equal protection, and a powerful white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant culture that resisted change.Two national organizations, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the National Urban League, began working toward black civil rights earlier in the century, but the real turning point came with the famous case in 1954 of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. That was the case that gave us a hallmark phrase still pointed to today, that separate social institutions, in this case schools, are “inherently unequal.”The 1950s also brought us such important civil rights figures as Martin Luther King, Jr., and Rosa Parks. Over time, through boycotts, sit-ins, and marches, including the well-known 1963 march in Washington, D.C., civil rights began to make headway. Though there were many Americans at that time who strongly resisted (and some who still do today), the Civil Rights Act was passed, which legislated against school segregation and discriminatory voting requirements, among other issues.There are those who wonder how successful that period, and that law, have been in promoting racial equality. Surely we continue to have an unequal society, but significant changes have also come to pass. Barack Obama’s presidency illustrates those changes, but does not mean that racism is gone or that the need to continually examine where we are in terms of equality has passed.
74Latinos in the United States Latinos, or Hispanics, are not a single, unified group aside from their shared language.The three main groups in the United States all have very different histories:Mexican AmericansPuerto RicansCuban AmericansThe studying of Latinos in the United States is an incredibly broad field. Why is this so? In large part it is because we are talking about people from Mexico, seven Central American countries, twelve South American countries, Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Spain. In reality, the primary unifying point for those we often call Hispanic—which literally means those from Spain or with a relationship to Spain—is the use of Spanish language. The idea that people with roots in any of these twenty-four countries are part of one, single ethnic group remains somewhat controversial. There are those who favor it for reasons of creating a large, strong group of people with shared interests and related cultures. There are those who oppose it because it seemingly wipes out the distinctions that exist between the many groups. Time will tell how much Latinos become a unified bloc and whether they come to truly constitute a meaningful ethnicity.The three largest groups of Latinos here in the United States are Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans.74
75Latinos in the United States Today there are increasing numbers of Central American immigrants.Latinos now make up a larger percentage of the population than African Americans, with approximately 15 percent versus 12 percent (as of 2008).In recent years there have been increasingly large numbers of immigrants from Central America as well. Also, Latino populations are more spread out. It used to be that they were relatively confined to the Southwest and to California and Florida, but today, states like North Carolina and Illinois also have large and growing Hispanic populations.The growth of the Latino population in the United States is most readily seen in the census data that shows that they now outnumber African Americans as a percentage of the total U.S. population.75
76Asians in the United States Like Latinos, Asians are not comprised of a single group of people.The largest groups in the United States include Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos, though there are sizeable populations of other groups.As with Latinos, there has been something of a tendency to lump together all those from Asian countries into one large group that we simply call “Asian.” Like Latinos, this misses the reality of a group of people coming from some more than 15 countries and with different cultures, languages, and reasons for being here.The largest groups in the United States are Chinese, Filipinos, Asian Indian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese.76
77Asians in the United States Asians have a history of extreme discrimination in U.S. history.Even so, as a group they have done very well and are now often referred to as a “model minority.”Asians currently make up about 4 percent of the U.S. population.As I’ve already mentioned, many Asians have experienced a great deal of discrimination in American history. The two best-known examples are the dreadful treatment of Chinese workers in the mining and railroad industries at the end of the nineteenth century and the forced internment of Japanese Americans during World War II.Discrimination against Asian Americans certainly still exists, but in large part they are a minority group that has been, in general, quite successful. In a moment we will look at some education and income data that will be more precise, but for now suffice it to say that as a group, Asians outperform even whites in many categories we tend to think of as very important. This has led to their sometimes loved, sometimes loathed, moniker as a “model minority.”77
78Seeing racial and ethnic inequality To say that a society is racialized is to say that it has a racial system of stratification.The United States is a racially stratified society, and we can see this in many places:Educational attainmentIncomeResidenceWealthAfter all of this talk about race, ethnicity, racialization, and history, it will be helpful to see what this actually looks like—which is a great deal of inequality. We can see this in many categories, including wealth, place of residence, education, occupation, and income.There are also more subtle indicators of inequality having to do with how people perceive their group’s status in society, whether they see racism as a continuing problem, and whether they believe their interests are taken into account by elected officials.We can see inequality in the kind of everyday racial profiling that, while illegal, happens with police officers, teachers, airport guards, store clerks. We can see it in the unequal distribution of privilege.But let’s go ahead and look at some data that will make some of this situation more clear.78
82Seeing inequality We can also see racial inequality in: Political representationResidential segregationCriminal justice systemHealth and wellnessThose, of course, aren’t the only places were we can actively see racial inequality. Let’s think for a moment about four more locations:First, consider political representation. Yes, we now have a black president, but that does not make the disproportional representation of minorities across the political spectrum vanish either literally or in importance. African Americans, for example, make up 12 percent of the population but only 2 percent of elected officials. Elected officials have a great deal of power, so this tells us that African Americans have only a limited voice in terms of political power.Second, we can think about what’s called residential segregation. We know that there are ongoing structures of residential segregation that keep us living separately and, per our own Supreme Court, this means unequally. Some of this is by choice, but some happens through the process of steering and other nefarious real estate and mortgage practices. Some happens through what is known as “white flight.” Do you know what white flight is?Other locations for inequality include our criminal justice system and our basic, physical health. Let me just say that minority groups, especially those living disproportionately in poverty, do not fare well in either case. Your textbook deals with both issues.82
83Getting ahead Over time, white ethnics have integrated well. Asian Americans have also done quite well when looked at as a whole.Cubans have done very well overall.African Americans, Native Americans, and Puerto Ricans have not fared as well.So what kinds of changes have occurred? Certainly white ethnics—those reviled southern and eastern Europeans who arrived at the turn of the twentieth century—have been very successful. Asian Americans have also done very well as a whole, though there are a few smaller groups, for example the Hmong and the Hmien, who are more recent immigrants and who continue to struggle. Cubans have been by far the most successful of the Latino groups here in the United States, becoming quite powerful and influential in South Florida, where they mostly reside.African Americans, Native Americans, and Puerto Ricans, have not had nearly as much success. Getting ahead continues to elude members of these groups as a whole. That certainly does not mean no African Americans are doing well; again, look at our president. But data still show significant gaps between these groups and others, and the question is, why?83
84Why are there such significant gaps? There are a variety of factors that help explain why some groups find more success than others.Voluntary immigration versus forced minority statusType and degree of discrimination facedAbility to blend into the “mainstream”Affinity of group culture to U.S. culture and valuesThere are as many explanations why as students in this room, but let’s focus on a few of the factors that social scientists have isolated as among the most important in explaining who gets ahead and who does not.Groups that do well are typically those who came to this country voluntarily. Groups that struggle were either brought here against their will or were incorporated (as in the case of Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans) into the United States as a group. Why might this lead to different outcomes?The type and degree of discrimination faced by groups also seems to have something to do with a group’s ability to succeed here. Slavery of African Americans is the most obvious example. No other group has faced anything comparable. There are exceptions, of course. The Chinese and Japanese faced terrible racism and have indeed climbed the ladder, but they have had other factors work in their favor.Groups that could blend in have certainly had a certain kind of advantage. Jews from eastern Europe certainly stood out on arrival, with strange accents and customs. But in time, as their children went to public schools, as Reform Judaism became the largest denomination, and as assimilation took place, their ability to literally look like everyone else—the fact that they were white—was very helpful to them.Finally, but no less significantly, coming from a culture with similar values to “American culture” has really helped certain groups. Having a strong educational or work ethic matches up very nicely with the very American “Protestant work ethic.” Such an affinity certainly plays a role, for example, in the success of Asians and Jews.84
101Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice is an attitude that people employ to judge others on their group’s real or imagined characteristics.Discrimination is unfair treatment of people due to their perceived group membership.
103DNA SnipsDNA is a chemical that contains the genetic instructions for all living organisms. When people have a child, the DNA of the mates combines and the child inherits the parents’ DNA.DNA consists of 3 billion pairs of four types of molecules. Different sequences of molecules result in different characteristics (e.g., skin colour). 99.5% of the DNA of all people is identical.The remaining 0.5% of DNA may differ between any two people; these differences (known as Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, SNPs or “snips”) are the focus of research in the field of comparative genomics.
104Comparative GenomicsSnips influence readily apparent physical differences such as skin pigmentation and less apparent physical differences such as the capacity to absorb and utilize various chemicals. Identifying snips of the latter type enables the production of “designer” drugs that are best suited to groups with unique genetic characteristics.Significantly, comparative genomics research focuses on differences between socially distinct groups, such as blacks and whites. Yet genetic diversity is greatest among people of African origin, and genetic variation within other racial groups may be pharmacologically significant.
105Race, Biology, and Society There is no biological evidence that races differ in ways that explain behavioural differences.Behavioural differences between racial groups are not constant.Behavioural differences between racial groups vary by social circumstance.
106RACE & ETHNICITY DEFINED: RACE & ETHNICITY ARE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTS USED TO CREATE AND MAINTAIN SYSTEMS OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY
1076 SOCIETAL RESPONSES TO RACIAL & ETHNIC DIFFERENCE Genocide: group exterminationExpulsion: forcible removal of group from a territorySlavery: legal ownership of a groupSegregation: spatial and institutional separation of groupsPluralism: retention of identity and equal access to basic social resources (Canada today)Assimilation: cultural blending of majority and minority groups (Canada today)
113Relative Deprivation Theory RewardsRewards expectedIntolerable gapRewards receivedPeople feel relatively deprived when they experience an intolerable gap between the social rewards they think they deserve and the social rewards they expect to receive. Social rewards are widely valued goods, including money, education, security, prestige, etc. Accordingly, people are most likely to rebel against authority when rising expectations (brought on by, say, rapid economic growth and migration) are met by a sudden decline in social rewards (due to, say, economic recession or war).Time
114Resource Mobilization Theory Resource mobilization theory is based on the idea that social movements can emerge only when disadvantaged people can marshal the means necessary to challenge authority. Foremost among the resources they need to challenge authority is the capacity to forge strong social ties among themselves. Other important resources that allow disadvantaged people to challenge authority include jobs, money, arms, and access to means of spreading their ideas.
115How Social Movements Changed, 1700-2000 19002000Characteristics of social movementsSmall, local, violentLarge, national, less violentLarge, international, less violentCause of changeGrowth of stateGlobalization
116WarA war is a violent, armed conflict between politically distinct groups who fight to protect or increase their control of territory.Wars may take place:between countries (interstate war)special type: colonial war, which involves a colony engaging in armed conflict with an imperial power to gain independencewithin countries (civil or societal war)
119Type of Government by Income Category PercentNote: Democracy = rule by the citizenry; autocracy = absolute rule by a single person or party; intermediate = some elements of democracy (e.g, regular elections) and some of autocracy (e.g., no institutional checks on presidential power).Income Category
120Forms of Modern Warfare, 1700-1945 The modern state increasingly monopolized the means of coercion.As a result, regional, ethnic, and religious wars declined, and interstate warfare became the norm.While conflict became more deadly, civilian life was pacified.
121Changing Form of Warfare since World War II There have been fewer interstate wars and more civil wars, guerilla wars, massacres, terrorist attacks, and instances of attempted ethnic cleansing and genocide perpetrated by militias, mercenaries, paramilitaries, suicide bombers, and so on.Large-scale violence has increasingly been visited on civilian rather than military populations.
122Why Warfare Changed after World War II Decolonization and separatist movements roughly doubled the number of weak, independent states in the world.The USA, the USSR, China and Cuba often subsidized and sent arms to domestic opponents of regimes that were aligned against them.The expansion of international trade in contraband provided separatist rebels with new means of support.