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By: Cammie Budde Elizabeth Maxwell Becca Caraveo Austin Kovacavich.

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1 By: Cammie Budde Elizabeth Maxwell Becca Caraveo Austin Kovacavich

2 Meaning of Religion Religion: a unified system of beliefs and practices concerned with sacred things -sacred: things and ideas that are set apart and given a special meaning that goes beyond immediate existence; vary in cultures -profane: the non sacred aspects of life; secular Sacred things take on a public character that make them appear important in themselves; profane things do not. Sociologists approach religion as a human creation and focus on social aspects of religion that can be measured and observed

3 Theoretical Perspectives of Religion Sociologist Emile Durkheim theorized that all societies have a form of religion with certain functions -Religion gives formal approval to existing social arrangements: religious doctrines legitimate the status quo therefore justifying social norms and customs -Religion encourages a sense of unity: the glue that holds society together preventing chaos. -Religion provides a sense of understanding: important events or ceremonies in religious terms that are part of the every day life such as birth, sexual maturity, marriage, death etc. -Religion promotes a sense of belonging: religious organizations providing opportunities for people to share important ideas, ways of life, and ethnic or racial backgrounds; group identity

4 Conflict Theories Karl Marx believed that people thought religion was something that was beyond their control and became a binding force to which they must conform. He believed the ruling class used it to justify its economic, political, and social advantages over the oppressed. Max Weber believed that religion encouraged social change. Capitalism and Protestant ethic comes from religion that stresses the virtues of hard work, thrift, and self discipline. John Calvin believed that God identifies his chosen by rewarding them, the underlying purpose of life was to glorify God on earth through one’s calling, and those who engaged in self pleasure were agents of the devil.

5 Religious Organizations Church: life encompassing religious organization to which all members of a society belong. Exists when religion and the state are close intertwined. Denomination: accepts the values and norms of the secular society and the state. Competition among them is socially acceptable and membership is voluntary. Sect: religious organization formed when members of an existing religious organization break away in an attempt to reform the parent group. Redeems the existing faith of the parent organization of which some beliefs have been lost. Cult: religious organization whose characteristics are not drawn from existing religious traditions within society. They bring something new to the larger religious environment. http:/

6 Religiosity Religiosity: the types of religious attitudes and behavior people display in their every day lives -Belief refers to what a person considers to be true -Ritual is a religious practice that the members of a religion are expected to perform -Intellectual Dimension involve knowledge of holy scripture or an interest in religious aspects as evil. Religious persons are supposed to be knowledgeable about their faith -Experience encompasses certain feelings attached to religious expression

7 Secularization VS Fundamentalism Secularization: countering the growth of religion in US history. Through this process, sacred aspects lose value and enter the secular world of every day life. Fundamentalism: the desire to resist secularization and to adhere closely to traditional religious beliefs, rituals, and doctrines. -Fundamentalists believe in the literal truth of the Bible -Protestant fundamentalists believe in being born again through the acceptance of Jesus Christ Fundamentalism is strong today because -Americans feel their world is out of control -Its churches comfort those who are experiencing weakness -Offer what they consider a more purely sacred environment

8 Different Statuses of Religion Upper class expresses religiosity through church membership and attendance where lower class expresses this through prayer and own emotional experiences. Followers of the Jewish faith tend to be Democratic, followed by Catholics and Protestants. Greatest support of the Republican Party is Episcopalians and Presbyterians. Controversy of religion verses science is that religion involves matters beyond human observation, while science is strictly observation.

9 Contributions Becca Caraveo: Activity and Handouts Cammie Budde: Powerpoint Presentation Elizabeth Maxwell: Youtube Video and Activity Austin Kovacavich: Vocab definitions and Quiz Handout Source of Images:

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