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Society, Seventh Edition

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1 Society, Seventh Edition
Race and Ethnicity Society, Seventh Edition

2 Society, Seventh Edition
Definitions Race – a socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important Racial types Caucasian: light skin, fine hair Negroid: darker skin, coarse hair Mongoloid: brown skin, distinctive eyes Ethnicity – a shared cultural heritage Common ancestors Common language Common religion Society, Seventh Edition

3 Society, Seventh Edition
Minority Group Any category of people, distinguished by physical or cultural difference, that a society sets apart and subordinates General characteristics Distinct identity” Race, sex, sexual orientation, the poor Subordination Often saddled with lower status Stereotypes, stigma, and labeling Group size not always a factor Women in America outnumber men Blacks in South Africa outnumber whites Society, Seventh Edition

4 National Map 11-1 (p. 275) Where the Minority-Majority Already Exists
Society, Seventh Edition

5 Society, Seventh Edition
Prejudice Prejudice – rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people Stereotyping – an exaggerated description of an entire category of people Racism – the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another Institutional prejudice & discrimination – bias inherent in the operation of society’s institutions Society, Seventh Edition

6 Society, Seventh Edition
Theories Of Prejudice Scapegoat theory Disadvantaged people who unfairly blame minorities for their own problems Authoritarian personality theory Ridged moralists with little education who see things in “black & white” Culture theory Everyone has some prejudice because it is embedded in culture Conflict theory Self-justification for the rich and powerful in America Minorities may cultivate climate of race consciousness in order to win greater power and privileges Society, Seventh Edition

7 Society, Seventh Edition
Discrimination Treating various categories of people unequally Can occur with prejudice Robert K. Merton’s 4 combinations Active Bigot – prejudiced, discriminator Timid Bigot – prejudiced, non-discriminator Fair-weather liberal – non-prejudiced, discriminator All-weather liberal – non-prejudiced, non-discriminator Society, Seventh Edition

8 Society, Seventh Edition
The Vicious Cycle Prejudice and discrimination begin as ethnocentric attitudes As a result, groups can be placed in a situation where they are socially disadvantaged and labeled A group’s situation, over time, is thus explained as a result of innate inferiority rather than looking at the social structure of reasons; The cycle then repeats itself Society, Seventh Edition

9 Figure 11-1 (p. 280) Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Circle
Society, Seventh Edition

10 Patterns of Interaction
Pluralism – a state in which racial and ethnic minorities ate distinct but have social parity Assimilation – the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category Miscegenation – biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories Segregation – the physical and social separation of categories of people De jure and de facto segregation Genocide –the systematic killing of one category of people by another Society, Seventh Edition

11 Racial & Ethnicity in the U.S.
Native Americans White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASP’s) African Americans Asian Americans Chinese Japanese Korean Filipinos Hispanic Americans Mexican Puerto Ricans Cuban Americans White Ethnic Americans Society, Seventh Edition

12 Society, Seventh Edition
How To Improve Enhance educational process Multicultural education Learn to appreciate diversity Increase meaningful social contact Desire to change Honest, self-critique of lifestyle Plan for increasing social contact Society, Seventh Edition

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