2Introduction to Socio_Cultural Variation in health Ass.Prof:Dr:Essmat Gemaey
3ObjectivesAfter completion of this lecture the students should be able to:1-Mention definition of culture and related concepts2-Discuss the problem of ethnocentric attitudes3-Discuss how culture influences a client’s behavior in health and in illness.
4Out lines -Introduction -some definitions - Characteristics of culture -Sub-culture
5This lecture assists nurses to understand how culture influences a client’s behavior in health and in illness.When nurses view clients through a cultural lens, they can both expand culture awareness and provide culturally congruent service
6Definition of Culture- Refers to the beliefes, values, and behavior that are shared by members of a society and provide a design or map for living .- It is a culture that tells people what is acceptable or unacceptable Also it is the integration of human behaviors (which include thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions) of a racial, ethnic, religious, or social group
7WHAT IS CULTURE ? It's the shared beliefs, values, attitudesand behavior patterns that characterize themembers of a community or organization.
8EthnocentrismIs the belief that one’s own cultural practices and values are inherently correct or superior to those of others?
9Ethnocentric attitudes can lead to the following problems 1-PrejudiceNegative preconceived opinions aboutOther people or groups based on hearsay, perception, or emotion• 2-StereotypingBelieving that one member of a cultural group will display certain behaviors or hold certain attitudes (usually negative) simply because he or she is a member of that cultural group
103-Discrimination—Differential treatment based on race, class, sex, or other variables rather than on individual merit4-Stigmatization—the attribution of negative characteristics or identity to one person or group, causing the person or group to feel rejected and, alienated, from society
11CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE Culture Is Learned-1Patterns of cultural behavior are acquired, not inherited. The way people dress, what they eat, how they talk—all are learned.
12-Culture Is Integrated As in any system, all parts of a culture are interrelated and interdependent.The various components of a culture, such as its social mores or religious beliefs, perform separate functions, coming in relative harmony with each other to form an operating and cohesive whole
133 -Culture is sharedCulture is the product of total behavior, not individual habit. Certainly, individuals practice a culture,Culture does not depend on individuals an ordinary habit dies with its possessor,
14Culture is mostly tacit Culture provides a guide for human interaction that is mostly unexpressed and at the unconscious level, or tacit. Members of a cultural group, without the need for discussion, know how to act and what to expect from one another.”. Culture teaches the proper tone of voice to use for each occasion. It prescribes how close to stand when talking with someone or how to respond to elders. They know what is right and wrong.
15Culture is dynamicEvery culture undergoes change; none is entirely static.Within every cultural group are individuals who generate innovations.. Each culture, including our own, is a mixtures of ideas, values, and practices from a variety of sources. This process depends on the extent of exposure to other groups. Nonetheless, every culture is in a dynamic state of adding or deleting components.
16Sub — Cultures-It refer to a smaller group within a larger cultural groupthat has its own particular set of cultural values, beliefs and practices.A subculture is usually composed of people who have a distinct identity and yet are also related to a larger cultural groupexampleA family member who practices a different religious faith than others in the family may be as uniquely different from other family members as she or he is like them
17Acculturationacculturation is the process or incorporating values, beliefs, and behaviors from the host culture into the immigrants' cultural worldview
18Cultural RelativismJudging and interpreting the behavior and belief of others in terms of their traditionsand experiences. Cultural Self-Awareness: Understanding the assumptions and values upon which one's own behavior and worldview rests. The appreciation and acceptance of differences
19EthnicityA group identity based on culture, language, religion, or a common attachment to a place or kin ties. Ethnicity is a relational concept.Power: The ability to produce intended effects on oneself, on other people, and on things or situations.Race: A biological term classifying people who have the same physical characteristics.
20Racism: The belief that some human population groups are inherently superior or inferior to others because of genetically transmitted characteristics.Social Stratification: The division of members of a society into strata (or levels) with an unequal access to wealth, prestige, power, opportunity, and other valued resources.
21WHAT ARE VALUES ? They are our basic beliefs about what is right, good, true, correct, desirable, moral,and so on. All of us behave in ways that are consistentwith our values.
22what is Norms They are expected behavior. They provide rules about standards of appropriate behavior in particular situations.Norms flow from cultural values about what is important in various situations
23BeliefsIt is conviction based on information held by people for whish no socially acceptable means of validity exist.-It is a conviction that is mentally accepted as true whether or not itbased on fact
24TraditionAncient etho —- cultural — religious, beliefs and practices handed down through generations
25TabooThey are illegal act and thoughts to avoid actual or potential harm to self and others.