31William James (1902)Religion is a common human response to the fact that we all stand at the edge of an abyss. It helps us cope with the terrifying fact that we must die. It offers us immortality, the promise of better times to come, and the security of benevolent spirits who look over us. It provides meaning and purpose in a world that might otherwise seem cruel and senseless.
32Karl Marx (1843)Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, just as it is the spirit of a spiritless situation. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is required for their real happiness. The demand to give up the illusion about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusions Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right
35DIVINE CONTROL“…divine control involves the extent that one believes that God exercises a commanding authority over the course and direction of his or her own life”- Schieman, Pudrovska, and Milkie 2005“The belief that there exists a superhuman, supernatural intelligence who deliberately designed and created the universe and everything in it”- Richard Dawkins 2007
36SESSES = Socioeconomic Status, usually includes one’s yearly income and the years of formal education one attained.
37DEPRIVATION-COMPENSATION THESIS Individuals in disadvantaged socioeconomic conditions are more likely to be religious in order to compensate for their plight and acquire otherwise unattainable rewards- Glock and Stark (1965)
39DEMYTHOLGIZATION THESIS Higher socioeconomic (SES) status diminishes the belief in the supernatural-mythological orthodoxy of religion
403 TEST GROUPS Group 1 received prayers and didn’t know it. Group 2 received no prayers and didn’t know it.Group 3 received prayers and did know it.
41STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF PRAYER FOR HEALTH RESULTS: Prayer has no effect on recovery.“Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer (STEP) in cardiac bypass patients: A multicenter randomized trial of uncertainty and certainty of receiving intercessory prayer. Clinical Investigation “-- American Heart Journal. 151(4): , April 2006.
42RELIGIOUS EXTREMISMa term used to describe the actions or ideologies of religious individuals or groups outside the perceived center of a given religion; or otherwise claimed to violate common moral standards of a given religion.