Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Concept of Race Race is based on some real or presumed physical, biological characteristic, such as skin color or hair texture, as well as a shared lineage. Ethnic groups, in contrast, are defined on the basis of some real or presumed cultural characteristic such as language, religion, tradition, and cultural practices. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Historical Thinking About Race “Scientific” Explanations In the 19 th and 20 th centuries there were scientific justifications for treating people of other races differently. This led to “scientific” justifications for unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige. Gregor Mendel’s work on genetics and heredity led to the development of Eugenics. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Historical Thinking About Race Cultural Explanations Though “scientific” explanations of race continue to exist, a newer explanation based on social and cultural factors is more prevalent today. In the second half of the 20 th century, ideas of cultural superiority replaced those associated with biological superiority. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Fluidity of Racial Categories There is nothing intrinsic about any racial group that makes it distinct from any other. Race is a dynamic and fluid concept. The hypodescent rule (also known as the one drop rule) Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Racial and Ethnic Identities Many members from oppressed racial groups go to some lengths to identify with the dominant group. Some assigned to a subordinate race physically resemble the dominant race. Others straighten, curl, or color their hair. Others lighten their skin. Some undergo rhinoplasty. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Majority-Minority Relations Sociologically the definition of majority- minority is not numerical but based on access to power, property, and prestige. The social construction of difference says that all majority and minority statuses are products of social definitions. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Majority-Minority Relations Stereotypes, Prejudices, and Discrimination A stereotype is a generalization about an entire category of people. Prejudice involves attitudes, beliefs, and feelings toward minorities (usually negative). Discrimination is the unfavorable treatment arising from negative stereotypes of prejudice. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Majority-Minority Relations Intersectionality is the idea that members of any minority group are affected by the nature of their position in other arrangements of social inequality. “Matrix of Oppression” The converse is also true in that a person who holds a number of statuses that are highly valued in society is likely to be advantaged. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Majority-Minority Relations Patterns of interaction Pluralism exists in societies where many groups are able to coexist without any of them losing their individual qualities. Assimilation occurs when a minority group takes on the characteristics of the dominant group. Segregation is the physical separation of majority and minority groups. Genocide is the systematic attempt at eliminating an entire group of people. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Majority-Minority Relations Race, Ethnicity, and Consumption Marketing to Minorities White Consumption of Black Culture Commercialization of Ethnicity Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Racism Racism is the negative treatment of racial and ethnic groups. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own group is superior to other groups. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Racism Foundations of Racism Social Structure and Racism Culture and Racism Racist Motives Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Racism Institutional Racism Race-based discrimination that results from the day-to-day operation of social institutions and social structures The Role of Individuals in Institutional Racism The “Invisibility” of Institutional Racism Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Social Movements and Race Hate Groups Most hate groups in the United States are white supremacist movements. Examples include the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and neo-Nazi skinheads. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Social Movements and Race Civil Rights Movement Resistance to the oppression of blacks and other minority groups Started in the South in the mid-1950s Honed a variety of techniques including boycotts, mass marches, freedom rides, and lawsuits As a result Jim Crow laws in the South were dismantled Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Social Movements and Race Collective Identity and Power Movements Social movements that arose in the late 1960s and early 1970s (after civil rights) Black Power Movement Brown Power and La Raza Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Race and Ethnicity in Global Context Ethnic Identity and Globalization Some sociologists argue that globalization is not a threat to ethnic identity. Ethnic identities are not fragile. Globalization can be a force for the creation and proliferation of ethnic identity. Ethnic identity and globalization are part of the same process. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Race and Ethnicity in Global Context Global Prejudice and Discrimination Global Flows Based on Race and Ethnicity Positive and Negative Flows Racial and Ethnic Barriers Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Race and Ethnicity in Global Context Ethnic Conflict Within Nation-States Expulsion is the removal of a group (direct or voluntary) from a territory. Ethnic Cleansing is the establishment by the dominant group of policies that allow for the forcible removal of another ethnic group. Genocide is defined as “acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group.” Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.