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1Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc. Chapter 9Race and EthnicityCopyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
2Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc. The Concept of RaceRace is based on some real or presumed physical, biological characteristic, such as skin color or hair texture, as well as a shared lineage.Ethnic groups, in contrast, are defined on the basis of some real or presumed cultural characteristic such as language, religion, tradition, and cultural practices.Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
3Historical Thinking About Race “Scientific” ExplanationsIn the 19th and 20th centuries there were scientific justifications for treating people of other races differently.This led to “scientific” justifications for unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige.Gregor Mendel’s work on genetics and heredity led to the development of Eugenics.Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
4Historical Thinking About Race Cultural ExplanationsThough “scientific” explanations of race continue to exist, a newer explanation based on social and cultural factors is more prevalent today.In the second half of the 20th century, ideas of cultural superiority replaced those associated with biological superiority.Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
5The Fluidity of Racial Categories There is nothing intrinsic about any racial group that makes it distinct from any other.Race is a dynamic and fluid concept.The hypodescent rule (also known as the one drop rule)Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
6Racial and Ethnic Identities Many members from oppressed racial groups go to some lengths to identify with the dominant group.Some assigned to a subordinate race physically resemble the dominant race.Others straighten, curl, or color their hair.Others lighten their skin.Some undergo rhinoplasty.Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
7Majority-Minority Relations Sociologically the definition of majority-minority is not numerical but based on access to power, property, and prestige.The social construction of difference says that all majority and minority statuses are products of social definitions.Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
8Majority-Minority Relations Stereotypes, Prejudices, and DiscriminationA stereotype is a generalization about an entire category of people.Prejudice involves attitudes, beliefs, and feelings toward minorities (usually negative).Discrimination is the unfavorable treatment arising from negative stereotypes of prejudice.Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
9Majority-Minority Relations Intersectionality is the idea that members of any minority group are affected by the nature of their position in other arrangements of social inequality.“Matrix of Oppression”The converse is also true in that a person who holds a number of statuses that are highly valued in society is likely to be advantaged.Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
10Majority-Minority Relations Patterns of interactionPluralism exists in societies where many groups are able to coexist without any of them losing their individual qualities.Assimilation occurs when a minority group takes on the characteristics of the dominant group.Segregation is the physical separation of majority and minority groups.Genocide is the systematic attempt at eliminating an entire group of people.Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
11Majority-Minority Relations Race, Ethnicity, and ConsumptionMarketing to MinoritiesWhite Consumption of Black CultureCommercialization of EthnicityCopyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
12Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc. RacismRacism is the negative treatment of racial and ethnic groups.Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own group is superior to other groups.Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
13Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc. RacismFoundations of RacismSocial Structure and RacismCulture and RacismRacist MotivesCopyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
14Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc. RacismInstitutional RacismRace-based discrimination that results from the day-to-day operation of social institutions and social structuresThe Role of Individuals in Institutional RacismThe “Invisibility” of Institutional RacismCopyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
15Social Movements and Race Hate GroupsMost hate groups in the United States are white supremacist movements.Examples include the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and neo-Nazi skinheads.Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
16Social Movements and Race Civil Rights MovementResistance to the oppression of blacks and other minority groupsStarted in the South in the mid-1950sHoned a variety of techniques including boycotts, mass marches, freedom rides, and lawsuitsAs a result Jim Crow laws in the South were dismantledCopyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
17Social Movements and Race Collective Identity and Power MovementsSocial movements that arose in the late 1960s and early 1970s (after civil rights)Black Power MovementBrown Power and La RazaCopyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
18Race and Ethnicity in Global Context Ethnic Identity and GlobalizationSome sociologists argue that globalization is not a threat to ethnic identity.Ethnic identities are not fragile.Globalization can be a force for the creation and proliferation of ethnic identity.Ethnic identity and globalization are part of the same process.Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
19Race and Ethnicity in Global Context Global Prejudice and DiscriminationGlobal Flows Based on Race and EthnicityPositive and Negative FlowsRacial and Ethnic BarriersCopyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
20Race and Ethnicity in Global Context Ethnic Conflict Within Nation-StatesExpulsion is the removal of a group (direct or voluntary) from a territory.Ethnic Cleansing is the establishment by the dominant group of policies that allow for the forcible removal of another ethnic group.Genocide is defined as “acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group.”Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.