Presentation on theme: "Main points of Interlanguage, Krashen, and Universal Grammar."— Presentation transcript:
Main points of Interlanguage, Krashen, and Universal Grammar
What is Interlanguage (IL)? Larry Selinker (1972) Intermediate states (or intermediate grammars) of a learner’s language as it moves toward the target L2. Creative process, driven by inner forces and interaction, and influenced by L1 and input from the target language.
Characteristics of Interlanguage Systematic (governed by rules and by students’ L1) Dynamic (changes frequently) Variable (based on context and situation) Reduced system (form)- the interlanguage is less complex grammatically in form Reduced system (function)- used for a smaller range of communicative needs.
Differences in IL in L2 and L1 Language transfer How the L2 is taught. How learners approach learning L2. Ways that learners try to communicate with others in L2. Overgeneralization (rules are applied to broadly).
Fossilization Cease learning a language before they reach target language norms. This happens despite students receive L2 input and passage of time. More likely to happen among older L2 learners. Also depends on social identity and need to communicate
Issues with Fossilization Should individuals be considered “fossilized” if… They retain a foreign accent despite being fluent in the language? The students don’t want to “sound native” Should “progress” be measured against native-speaker norms?
Monitor Model (Krashen) Language Acquisition Device (LAD)- children’s innate knowledge and language. Collection of five hypotheses which have major claims and assumptions about learning a language
Krashen’s Five Hypotheses Acquisition-learning Monitor Natural Order Input Affective filter
Acquisition Learning What is the difference between acquisition and learning? Acquisition- subconscious learning, not aware; involves the LAD Learning- conscious; what happens in the classroom.
Monitor What is “learned” is available only as a monitor, for purposes of editing or making changes in what has already been produced.
Natural Order Acquire the rules of language in a predictable order.
Affective Filter How one feels about the learning process. Conscious learning is taking place. Input may not be processed if this is “up”. “Lower their affective filter”
Universal Grammar (UG) Noam Chomsky Language Acquisition is based on linguistic competence (what learners know about the language) not on the use of the language. This knowledge is deeper than the input students get. (“Innate”)
Innate Knowledge Competency in L1 come from the innate knowledge that all students possess. Knowledge is also based on what all languages have. Innate knowledge= language faculty (physically represented in the brain)
Innate Knowledge Children already have a rich system of knowledge that they bring when are they learning L1. They are not learning UG; UG is present at birth, but this capacity is awaken with input. But, does this knowledge apply to individuals who are learning additional languages beyond childhood?
Principles and Parameters Principles= the properties that ALL languages possess. Parameters= variation amongst the different languages. Children are able to interpret the input they receive and out comes the appropriate grammar.
UG and L2 What is the initial state in L2? (Starting point) What is the nature of interlanguage and how does it change over time? What is the final state in SLA?
Initial State Learners already have knowledge of L1 when L2 acquisition begins. L1 knowledge is transferred, but what transfers and what to degree depends on: -Any similarities between L1 and L2? -Why and how the person is learning L2?
Initial State (continued) When L1 and L2 settings are the same, positive transfer happens. When L1 and L2 settings are different, negative transfer or interference occurs.
Final State All learners may not have the same degree of access to UG. Different relationships between L1 and L2 may result in negative transfer or interference. Some learners may receive different input (in terms of quality).
Functional Approaches Emphasize the content of what is being produced Views language as a form of communication rather than rules.
Other Main Points of Functionalism Focus is on the use of language in real situations (performance) as well as underlying knowledge (competence). Purpose of language is communication, and to develop that knowledge requires communicative use. Study how language is used in interaction.