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Main points of Interlanguage, Krashen, and Universal Grammar.

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Presentation on theme: "Main points of Interlanguage, Krashen, and Universal Grammar."— Presentation transcript:

1 Main points of Interlanguage, Krashen, and Universal Grammar

2 What is Interlanguage (IL)?  Larry Selinker (1972)  Intermediate states (or intermediate grammars) of a learner’s language as it moves toward the target L2.  Creative process, driven by inner forces and interaction, and influenced by L1 and input from the target language.

3 Characteristics of Interlanguage  Systematic (governed by rules and by students’ L1)  Dynamic (changes frequently)  Variable (based on context and situation)  Reduced system (form)- the interlanguage is less complex grammatically in form  Reduced system (function)- used for a smaller range of communicative needs.

4 Differences in IL in L2 and L1  Language transfer  How the L2 is taught.  How learners approach learning L2.  Ways that learners try to communicate with others in L2.  Overgeneralization (rules are applied to broadly).

5 Fossilization  Cease learning a language before they reach target language norms.  This happens despite students receive L2 input and passage of time.  More likely to happen among older L2 learners.  Also depends on social identity and need to communicate

6 Issues with Fossilization Should individuals be considered “fossilized” if…  They retain a foreign accent despite being fluent in the language?  The students don’t want to “sound native” Should “progress” be measured against native-speaker norms?

7 Monitor Model (Krashen)  Language Acquisition Device (LAD)- children’s innate knowledge and language.  Collection of five hypotheses which have major claims and assumptions about learning a language

8 Krashen’s Five Hypotheses  Acquisition-learning  Monitor  Natural Order  Input  Affective filter

9 Acquisition Learning What is the difference between acquisition and learning? Acquisition- subconscious learning, not aware; involves the LAD Learning- conscious; what happens in the classroom.

10 Monitor What is “learned” is available only as a monitor, for purposes of editing or making changes in what has already been produced.

11 Natural Order Acquire the rules of language in a predictable order.

12 Affective Filter  How one feels about the learning process. Conscious learning is taking place.  Input may not be processed if this is “up”.  “Lower their affective filter”

13 Universal Grammar (UG)  Noam Chomsky  Language Acquisition is based on linguistic competence (what learners know about the language) not on the use of the language.  This knowledge is deeper than the input students get. (“Innate”)

14 Innate Knowledge  Competency in L1 come from the innate knowledge that all students possess.  Knowledge is also based on what all languages have.  Innate knowledge= language faculty (physically represented in the brain)

15 Innate Knowledge  Children already have a rich system of knowledge that they bring when are they learning L1.  They are not learning UG; UG is present at birth, but this capacity is awaken with input.  But, does this knowledge apply to individuals who are learning additional languages beyond childhood?

16 Principles and Parameters  Principles= the properties that ALL languages possess.  Parameters= variation amongst the different languages.  Children are able to interpret the input they receive and out comes the appropriate grammar.

17 UG and L2  What is the initial state in L2? (Starting point)  What is the nature of interlanguage and how does it change over time?  What is the final state in SLA?

18 Initial State  Learners already have knowledge of L1 when L2 acquisition begins.  L1 knowledge is transferred, but what transfers and what to degree depends on: -Any similarities between L1 and L2? -Why and how the person is learning L2?

19 Initial State (continued)  When L1 and L2 settings are the same, positive transfer happens.  When L1 and L2 settings are different, negative transfer or interference occurs.

20 Final State  All learners may not have the same degree of access to UG.  Different relationships between L1 and L2 may result in negative transfer or interference.  Some learners may receive different input (in terms of quality).

21 Functional Approaches  Emphasize the content of what is being produced  Views language as a form of communication rather than rules.

22 Other Main Points of Functionalism  Focus is on the use of language in real situations (performance) as well as underlying knowledge (competence).  Purpose of language is communication, and to develop that knowledge requires communicative use.  Study how language is used in interaction.

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