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Explaining Second Language Learning I

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Presentation on theme: "Explaining Second Language Learning I"— Presentation transcript:

1 Explaining Second Language Learning I
Different Approaches Comparison to First Language Learning

2 Structure Behaviourism Innatist Perspective
Mimicry and Memorization Innatist Perspective Universal Grammar Monitor Model (Krashen) Current Psycological Theories Cognitivist/ Developmental Perspective Information Processing Connectionism Competition Model

3 Behaviourism I great influence during the 1940s and the 1970s
Stimulus + practice (mimicry) + reinforcement (or feedback on success) = habit formation  language development = formation of habit

4 Behaviourism II example: learner hears: ‘Give me a pencil.‘  stimulus
learner uses sentence  practice learner gets a pencil  reinforcement/ feedback on success learner has learned a new, correct sentence  formation of habit

5  great influence on the
Behaviourism III  great influence on the Audiolingual Method

6 Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
Idea: learner applies habits of L1 learning to L2 first and target language similar different acquisition of target language structures easy difficult

7 Opinions against Behaviourism and CAH
not all errors predictable complexity and grammatical correctness of utterances in L2 not as high as it is in L1 general use of simple structures with all learners influence of learner’s L1 may not simply be a transfer of habits rejection of Behaviourism and CAH (1970s)

8 Innatist Perspective I
Chomsky: Universal Grammar Critical Period Hypothesis  different theories for second language acquisition

9 Universal Grammar Bley Vroman/ Schachter: not a good explanation – critical period is passed Lydia White: best perspective for second language acquisition; but nature of UG is altered Vivian Cook: learners have more knowledge than input could give them  UG (different theories about it‘s nature)

10 Monitor Model (Krashen)
Since the early 1970s Five hypotheses: Acquisition-learning hypothesis Monitor hypothesis Natural order hypothesis Input hypothesis Affective filter hypothesis

11 Innatist Perspective II
Influeneces: Change in second language teaching  communicative language teaching  content based instructions

12 Current Psychological Theories
Cognitivist/ Developmental Perspective Information processing Connectionism The Competition Model

13 Information processing I
SLA as building up of knowledge to reach a level of “automaticity” for speaking and understanding learner will at first only try to understand main words practice and experience  information is easier to process and quicker to access, eventually automatically

14 Information processing II
Procedural knowledge through practice knowledge how Declarative knowledge starting point of learning knowledge that LA is a skill like driving a car. You first learn the basics, then you are by and by mastering the skill, automatizing the performance.

15 Information processing III
The declarative knowledge may even be forgotten…  Thinking about the basics of the skill, while doing it, then affects the performance negatively!

16 Information processing IV
The theory of gradual build up of knowledge through practice does not explain the “sudden bursts of progress” or the backslides that learners may experience  These changes in language behaviour are called “Restructuring”.

17 Connectionism I No specific innate knowledge of the learner No Universal Grammar  Innate is only the possibility to learn, not the linguistic principles!

18 Connectionism II Declarative knowledge is of lesser importance than
 “the exposure of learners to thousands of instances of the linguistic principles” Learners gradually develop a network of connections through the exposure

19 The Competition Model I
Closely related to Connectionism Language acquisition occurs without the need for focused attention or innate knowledge Additional emphasis on language meaning and use - not just on the form

20 The Competition Model II
“Through exposure to thousands of examples of language associated with particular meanings, learners come to understand how to use the “cues” with which a language signals specific functions.” “cues” = word order, grammatical markers, animacy of the nouns, intonation  different aspects of language „compete“

21 The Competition Model III
In most languages multiple cues occur, but with different emphasis: comparison English - Italian Il giocattolo guarda il bambino. the toy – is looking at – the boy Italian: focus on the animacy of the nouns animate noun: boy inanimate noun: toy  The boy is looking at the toy.

22 Review Questions How did Behaviourism influence language teaching methods? Give an example of language learning in L1 and L2 from a behaviourist point of view. Name the 5 hypothesis of Krashen‘s Monitor Model and briefly explain 2 of them. According to the Competition Model: What are „cues“ in a language? How may they affect the L2-learning? What is the difference between Declarative Knowledge and Procedurale Knowledge (according to Connectionism)? Give an example.

23 References Cook, V.J. (2001). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. Third edition. London: Hodder Arnold. Ellis, R. (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gass, Susan M. Input, Interaction, and the Second Language Learner. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Krashen, Stephen D. (1985). Inquieries and Insights. Englewood Cliffs: Alemany Press. Lightbown, Patsy M. and Spada, Nina (2006). How Languages are Learned. 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mitchell, R. and Myles, F. (1998). Second Language Learning Theories. London: Arnold.

24 Thank you very much for your attention!
Julia, Stefan and Sonja²

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