Presentation on theme: "Explaining Second Language Learning I"— Presentation transcript:
1 Explaining Second Language Learning I Different ApproachesComparison to First Language Learning
2 Structure Behaviourism Innatist Perspective Mimicry and MemorizationInnatist PerspectiveUniversal GrammarMonitor Model (Krashen)Current Psycological TheoriesCognitivist/ Developmental PerspectiveInformation ProcessingConnectionismCompetition Model
3 Behaviourism I great influence during the 1940s and the 1970s Stimulus + practice (mimicry) + reinforcement (or feedback on success) = habit formation language development = formation of habit
4 Behaviourism II example: learner hears: ‘Give me a pencil.‘ stimulus learner uses sentence practicelearner gets a pencil reinforcement/ feedback on successlearner has learned a new, correct sentence formation of habit
5 great influence on the Behaviourism III great influence on theAudiolingual Method
6 Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis Idea:learner applies habits of L1 learning to L2first and target languagesimilardifferentacquisition of target language structureseasydifficult
7 Opinions against Behaviourism and CAH not all errors predictablecomplexity and grammatical correctness of utterances in L2 not as high as it is in L1general use of simple structures with all learnersinfluence of learner’s L1 may not simply be a transfer of habitsrejection of Behaviourism and CAH (1970s)
8 Innatist Perspective I Chomsky:Universal GrammarCritical Period Hypothesis different theories for second language acquisition
9 Universal GrammarBley Vroman/ Schachter: not a good explanation – critical period is passedLydia White: best perspective for second language acquisition; but nature of UG is alteredVivian Cook: learners have more knowledge than input could give them UG (different theories about it‘s nature)
10 Monitor Model (Krashen) Since the early 1970sFive hypotheses:Acquisition-learning hypothesisMonitor hypothesisNatural order hypothesisInput hypothesisAffective filter hypothesis
11 Innatist Perspective II Influeneces:Change in second language teaching communicative language teaching content based instructions
12 Current Psychological Theories Cognitivist/ Developmental PerspectiveInformation processingConnectionismThe Competition Model
13 Information processing I SLA as building up of knowledge to reach a level of “automaticity” for speaking and understandinglearner will at first only try to understand main wordspractice and experience information is easier to process and quicker to access, eventually automatically
14 Information processing II Proceduralknowledgethrough practiceknowledge howDeclarativeknowledgestarting point of learningknowledge thatLA is a skill like driving a car. You first learn the basics, then you are by and by mastering the skill, automatizing the performance.
15 Information processing III The declarative knowledge may even be forgotten… Thinking about the basics of the skill, while doing it, then affects the performance negatively!
16 Information processing IV The theory of gradual build up of knowledge through practice does not explain the “sudden bursts of progress” or the backslides that learners may experience These changes in language behaviour are called “Restructuring”.
17 Connectionism INo specific innate knowledge of the learnerNo Universal Grammar Innate is only the possibility to learn, not the linguistic principles!
18 Connectionism II Declarative knowledge is of lesser importance than “the exposure of learners to thousands of instances of the linguistic principles”Learners gradually develop a network of connections through the exposure
19 The Competition Model I Closely related to ConnectionismLanguage acquisition occurs without the need for focused attention or innate knowledgeAdditional emphasis on language meaning and use - not just on the form
20 The Competition Model II “Through exposure to thousands of examples of language associated with particular meanings, learners come to understand how to use the “cues” with which a language signals specific functions.”“cues” = word order, grammatical markers, animacy of the nouns, intonation different aspects of language „compete“
21 The Competition Model III In most languages multiple cues occur, but with different emphasis:comparison English - ItalianIl giocattolo guarda il bambino.the toy – is looking at – the boyItalian: focus on the animacy of the nounsanimate noun: boyinanimate noun: toy The boy is looking at the toy.
22 Review QuestionsHow did Behaviourism influence language teaching methods?Give an example of language learning in L1 and L2 from a behaviourist point of view.Name the 5 hypothesis of Krashen‘s Monitor Model and briefly explain 2 of them.According to the Competition Model: What are „cues“ in a language? How may they affect the L2-learning?What is the difference between Declarative Knowledge and Procedurale Knowledge (according to Connectionism)? Give an example.
23 ReferencesCook, V.J. (2001). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. Third edition. London: Hodder Arnold.Ellis, R. (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Gass, Susan M. Input, Interaction, and the Second Language Learner. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesKrashen, Stephen D. (1985). Inquieries and Insights. Englewood Cliffs: Alemany Press.Lightbown, Patsy M. and Spada, Nina (2006). How Languages are Learned. 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Mitchell, R. and Myles, F. (1998). Second Language Learning Theories. London: Arnold.
24 Thank you very much for your attention! Julia, Stefan and Sonja²