Presentation on theme: "2: FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUSITION The process of how children learn their native language (L1), e.g. The stages: bubbling words (one word/two words) complex."— Presentation transcript:
2: FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUSITION The process of how children learn their native language (L1), e.g. The stages: bubbling words (one word/two words) complex grammatical sentences; This linguistic development is commonly referred to Language Acquisition Two Central views of LA: The behaviorists: A child’s mind is like a blank slate; all knowledge comes from experience (i.e. stimulus/response- habits) The innatists (Chomsky, 1959): children are biologically programmed for language (Language Acquisition Device: LAD/UG); language develops as other biological functions develop such as walking. The language is not merely acquired by imitation (i.e. behaviorism)
First Language Acquisition …… The Interactionists: Language develops because of the interaction between linguistic/social environment and the child’s innate capacity ( i.e. a child is social being, an active party of Language learning-> hypotheses maker, endowed with a language device)
First language acquisition Chomsky (1959): Behaviorists theorists fail to recognize what is called “the logical problem of language acquisition”. It refers to children learning the structures of their language by utterances they hear from adults in the environment: they are able to systematically correct those incomplete utterances since they have an Language Acquisition Device (LAD), later Universal Grammar (UG). This device can prevent them from using incorrect rules of language and can discover language rules in the process of acquiring language. e.g. go-> goed ->wented/went; I chocolate my milk, I no like it -> I don’t like it, what she saying?-> what is she saying?
Second Language Acquisition Similar to that of First language acquisition Language Device (LAD/UG): There is access to UG for second language learners. CPH: still in dispute!!!! Hypotheses maker Sufficient exposure and opportunities to use the language Native Language interference in L2
Foreign Language Acquisition A very little research on FLA (i.e. in Indonesia) Notions on FLA: “What is learned and how it is learned” (Ellis, 1994) “The amount of time of learning the language” (Lindfors, 1980) “The kinds of social and cultural exposures to the language” (Moon, 2000) “The process of foreign language learning at school” (Nunan, 1999; Foley & Thompson, 2003) “learners in EFL setting should be provided with ‘ESL advantages’” (Brown, 2000)
FLA ……. The findings of my study “Some preconditions that make foreign language learning plausible for children/learners” : UG in a child’s brain, Critical Period, Sufficient exposure to the language, Sufficient opportunities to use the language As Chomsky (1999) states: “… Language learning is not something that a child does but it is something that happens to the child placed in an appropriate environment,…………” Children can acquire any language since they also possess several qualities owned by L1 and L2 children
FLA …….. But they need environment that provide sufficient exposure to the language and opportunities to use it These preconditions make the learning of EFL similar to that of English as L1 and L2 “The rate of the acquisition of EFL varies since it depends on how much linguistic input a learner gains from the environment and the opportunities she or he has for communicative purposes” The acquisition/learning of EFL: 0-learning 100-learning
Foreign language Acquisition … Qualities possessed by Learners in FLA: UG wired in the brain (For children) critical period of age in learning language Environment/language community Sufficient exposure to the language Social beings Sufficient opportunities to use the language for communicative purposes May take longer time
FLA ……. Adult Learners: Analytical learners Language inhibition, self-esteem/confidence Insufficient time in learning Insufficient exposure Insufficient opportunities to use the language Motivation Way of learning at school UG? Critical period? These preconditions may determine how much they learn!
FLA Setting of Learning and Using Language In the Classroom Time Exposure….? Practice……? Teacher Learners Objective Method Approaches Design Procedure: Teaching Techniques/Strategies
ENGLISHES ENGLISH AS GLOBAL LANGUAGE: “NOBODY OWNS ENGLISH ANYMORE” (Harmer, 2007: 18) ESL EFL ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) ELF (English as a Lingua Franca): She look-Ø very sad; A person which, I work at Ø hospital; They should arrive soon, isn’t it?; The nurses discuss about the patient’s condition; black color, Please open your blouse, informations, I’m sorry, I’m leaving now