Stephen Krashen’s L2 Acquisition Theory Compiled by Doris Shih
Outline for Today w The acquisition-learning hypothesis The acquisition-learning hypothesis w The natural order hypothesis The natural order hypothesis w The monitor hypothesis The monitor hypothesis w The input hypothesis The input hypothesis w The affective filter hypothesis The affective filter hypothesis
What are the causative variables in second language acquisition?
For you, does language teaching really help? When does it help and when does it NOT help?
Effecting Variables w Comprehensible input (causative) w Strength of the filter (causative) w Language teaching w Exposure variable w Age w Acculturation
The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis w Acquisition = subconsciously picking up w Learning = conscious Error correction Explicit instruction w Children acquire language better than adults
The Natural Order Hypothesis w Grammar structures are acquired in a predictable order w L2 learning order is different from L1 order w L2 learning adults and children show similar order
ING (progressive) PLURAL COPULA (“to be”) AUXILIARY ARTICLE IRREGULAR PAST REGULAR PAST SINGULAR (-s) POSSESSIVE (-s) The order for L2 learners (Krashen, 1977)
The Monitor Hypothesis w Acquisition has the central role w Learning functions as a Monitor w 3 conditions needed to use Monitor Time Focus on form Know the rule w When Monitor is not used, errors are natural w Pedagogically: study of grammar has a place, but a limited one
The Input Hypothesis w We acquire by comprehensible input (i) + 1 w Input Hypothesis relates to acquisition, not learning w Focus not on structure but on understanding the message w Do not teach structure deliberately; i+1 is provided naturally when input is understood w Production ability emerges. It’s not taught directly
The Affective Filter Hypothesis w Motivation w Self-confidence w Anxiety w Lower affective filter will go further
Language Input Affective Filter Acquired Competence Language Acquisition Device The affective filter
Reference w Krashen, Stephen D. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall, 1987.