Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Craig. Returned monarchies after Napoleon’s defeat Klemens Metternich of Austria mastermind behind the “Concert” Goal: Keep France in check."— Presentation transcript:
Returned monarchies after Napoleon’s defeat Klemens Metternich of Austria mastermind behind the “Concert” Goal: Keep France in check Goal: Stamp out Liberalism or Nationalism anywhere it appears in Europe
Decembrists- Russia Spain/Portugal Greeks/ Serbia
Boyar class/military background Found glory in Napoleon’s invasion Secret Societies -to change Russia Opportunity arises on death of Czar Alexander I -delay in naming new Czar Czar Nicholas I puts down disorganized uprising Sets tone for increased repression in Russia for19th century How does this compare to The Fronde??
Bourbon dynasty restored Ferdinand VII tore up constitutional reforms of 1812 ( under Napoleon); dissolves Cortes. Revolt against Ferdinand by army officers, merchants, intelligensia Ferdinand restores constitution and Cortes Metternich’s policy of intervention comes to Ferdinand’s rescue!- French army used First challenge to Metternich- Concert split- England leaves. Monarchy restored Monroe Doctrine!!
Want emancipation from Ottoman Turk rule Greek hero- Ypsilanti (also officer in Russian army) leads several uprising Romantic sympathy for Greek plight Balance of power- fear Russian dominance in Balkans increases British/French help to Yps. Turkish/Egyptian fleet sunk 1827 Treaty of Adrianople- limits Russian territory annexation, recognizes small independent Greek kingdom.
Louis XVIII restored/Constitutional Monarchy/ Liberal domestic policies Charter with Chambers of Peers and Deputies Returning emigres +Metternich force revocation of Charter Charles X- conservative- succeeds Louis XVIII Absolutism returns! Dissolves chamber! Four Ordinances!!! Causes July Revolution leads to ‘Les Trois Glorieuses’ Charles flees
Liberal leaders emerge- Thiers and Guizot Republic versus Constitutional Monarchy Lafayette??--no King Louis Philippe Known as Bourgeois King
Congress of Vienna-R & PR fight over Poland Czar Alex I allows Poland liberal constitution Nicholas I restricts Polish liberties Influenced by news of French Rev 1830, revolt Resist Russia for 1 year- Warsaw falls/martial law imposed Revolutionaries/poets/musicians(Chopin) leave Results in Russification program
Austria & Pope obstacles to Italian unification. Secret societies to support unification began Carbonari rise up in 1831 to be put down by Austrian troops Rise of Mazzini- visionary of a unified republican Italy. Forms Young Italy Failed attempt at a Roman republic but ideas are planted– only to grow later.
After Napoleon, Belgium Holland and Netherland form loose political/economic union. Holland had political advantage Belgium revolt against Dutch rule- students, workers with middle class leadership National Congress created constitutional monarchy-Leopold of Saxe-Coburg Religious tolerance/limit king power Belgium beats another(1832) Netherland invasion with Fr and Br help/ guarantee Belgium independence and neutrality.
This Revolution was the catalyst for others!!! Louis Phillipe fails! Economic problems: unemployment, low wages, indifferent govt Constitutional monarchist (Theirs) join forces with republicans- want increased suffrage! Feb 1848- large demonstrations in Paris lead to riots! And Louis Phillippe abdicates!! Create Second Republic of France with first socialist programs
Louis Blanc floats a plan called “National Workshops”- guarantees jobs for all!! 2 ND Republic institutes some- not all- Blanc’s plan- bankrupts treasury in 2 years Riots again in 1850 leads to marshal law and leadership of General Cavaignac Elections in 1850 lean toward moderates. Middle class fear of loss of property and voting rights allows for Louis Napoleon Bonaparte to rise to power as symbol of order stability and democracy. ( won’t last long!)
Zollverein (customs union)- successful Economic problems and French riots in 1848 creates sympathy toward reform Metternich resigns and Frankfurt National Assembly convenes to prepare a constitution. Stood for ideals but had no power! Disputes over unification (Big vs. Little Germany), liberal vs democracy, proletariat vs bourgeoisie- uprisings in cities the result. National Assembly drafts a constitution
Offers Fred WM IV the crown of a united Germany- not popular with Junkers Fred Wm declines- saying “I will not accept a crown from the gutter” Frankfurt Assembly then dwindles away. Fred Wm will issue a constitution for Prussia Parliament will have 2 chambers Voting power biased toward Junkers vs working class.
Italy still not unified. Pope Pius IX – Papal States King Charles Albert & Cavour –Piedmont Mazzini- leader of Young Italy Pius IX thought to be a reformer- with CA pushed for unification Threats from Austria & suddenly Pius neutral Charles Albert suspends army and abdicates in favor of his son Victor Emmanuel II Meanwhile……
Mazzini and Young Italy rise up in Rome Force Pius IX to leave Form a Republic led by Mazzini French troops come to the pope’s rescue and Mazzini surrenders Ends any unification movements in 1848 And Italy is restored to pre-1848 rulers
Metternich has been a powerful prime minister Rising nationalism by Magyars(Hungarians) creates political instability Louis Kossuth- promotes Magyar nationalism Metternich tries policy of divide and conquer- pits anti-Magyar against anti- German Magyars Uprising in Feb 1848 Liberalism, nationalism, expanding middle class
Hungarians(Magyars) want no Austrian control- briefly independent under Kossuth but invaded by Russia and Austria- remain under Austrian control Meanwhile, students join middle class in revolt-Metternich resigns (goes to Britain) Hapsburgs crush revolt in Nov 1848 Prince Schwarzenberg- prime minister Francis Joseph succeeds Ferdinand I but nationalism increases within Austrian minorities. To be continued……..
FranceSuccessful!!! (kind of) ItalyFailure!!! GermanyFailure!!! AustriaFailure!! ( but it did get rid of Metternich and the Concert of Europe is no more!!!)