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Mrs. Craig.  Returned monarchies after Napoleon’s defeat  Klemens Metternich of Austria mastermind behind the “Concert”  Goal: Keep France in check.

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Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Craig.  Returned monarchies after Napoleon’s defeat  Klemens Metternich of Austria mastermind behind the “Concert”  Goal: Keep France in check."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mrs. Craig

2  Returned monarchies after Napoleon’s defeat  Klemens Metternich of Austria mastermind behind the “Concert”  Goal: Keep France in check  Goal: Stamp out Liberalism or Nationalism anywhere it appears in Europe

3  Decembrists- Russia  Spain/Portugal  Greeks/ Serbia

4  Boyar class/military background  Found glory in Napoleon’s invasion  Secret Societies -to change Russia  Opportunity arises on death of Czar Alexander I -delay in naming new Czar  Czar Nicholas I puts down disorganized uprising  Sets tone for increased repression in Russia for19th century  How does this compare to The Fronde??

5  Bourbon dynasty restored  Ferdinand VII tore up constitutional reforms of 1812 ( under Napoleon); dissolves Cortes.  Revolt against Ferdinand by army officers, merchants, intelligensia  Ferdinand restores constitution and Cortes  Metternich’s policy of intervention comes to Ferdinand’s rescue!- French army used  First challenge to Metternich- Concert split- England leaves.  Monarchy restored  Monroe Doctrine!!

6  Want emancipation from Ottoman Turk rule  Greek hero- Ypsilanti (also officer in Russian army) leads several uprising  Romantic sympathy for Greek plight  Balance of power- fear Russian dominance in Balkans increases British/French help to Yps.  Turkish/Egyptian fleet sunk 1827  Treaty of Adrianople- limits Russian territory annexation, recognizes small independent Greek kingdom.

7  Decembrists- unsuccessful  Spain/Portugal-unsuccessful  Greeks/ Serbia- “Successful”

8  Italy  Poland  Belgium  France

9  Louis XVIII restored/Constitutional Monarchy/ Liberal domestic policies  Charter with Chambers of Peers and Deputies  Returning emigres +Metternich force revocation of Charter  Charles X- conservative- succeeds Louis XVIII  Absolutism returns! Dissolves chamber!  Four Ordinances!!! Causes July Revolution leads to ‘Les Trois Glorieuses’  Charles flees

10  Liberal leaders emerge- Thiers and Guizot  Republic versus Constitutional Monarchy  Lafayette??--no  King Louis Philippe  Known as Bourgeois King

11  Congress of Vienna-R & PR fight over Poland  Czar Alex I allows Poland liberal constitution  Nicholas I restricts Polish liberties  Influenced by news of French Rev 1830, revolt  Resist Russia for 1 year- Warsaw falls/martial law imposed  Revolutionaries/poets/musicians(Chopin) leave  Results in Russification program

12  Austria & Pope obstacles to Italian unification.  Secret societies to support unification began  Carbonari rise up in 1831 to be put down by Austrian troops  Rise of Mazzini- visionary of a unified republican Italy.  Forms Young Italy  Failed attempt at a Roman republic but ideas are planted– only to grow later.

13  After Napoleon, Belgium Holland and Netherland form loose political/economic union.  Holland had political advantage  Belgium revolt against Dutch rule- students, workers with middle class leadership  National Congress created constitutional monarchy-Leopold of Saxe-Coburg  Religious tolerance/limit king power  Belgium beats another(1832) Netherland invasion with Fr and Br help/ guarantee Belgium independence and neutrality.

14  Italyfailed  Polandfailed  Belgium SUCCESS!!!  Francefailed

15  France  Italy  Germany  Austria

16  This Revolution was the catalyst for others!!!  Louis Phillipe fails! Economic problems: unemployment, low wages, indifferent govt  Constitutional monarchist (Theirs) join forces with republicans- want increased suffrage!  Feb 1848- large demonstrations in Paris lead to riots! And Louis Phillippe abdicates!!  Create Second Republic of France with first socialist programs

17  Louis Blanc floats a plan called “National Workshops”- guarantees jobs for all!!  2 ND Republic institutes some- not all- Blanc’s plan- bankrupts treasury in 2 years  Riots again in 1850 leads to marshal law and leadership of General Cavaignac  Elections in 1850 lean toward moderates.  Middle class fear of loss of property and voting rights allows for Louis Napoleon Bonaparte to rise to power as symbol of order stability and democracy. ( won’t last long!)

18  Zollverein (customs union)- successful  Economic problems and French riots in 1848 creates sympathy toward reform  Metternich resigns and Frankfurt National Assembly convenes to prepare a constitution.  Stood for ideals but had no power! Disputes over unification (Big vs. Little Germany), liberal vs democracy, proletariat vs bourgeoisie- uprisings in cities the result.  National Assembly drafts a constitution

19  Offers Fred WM IV the crown of a united Germany- not popular with Junkers  Fred Wm declines- saying “I will not accept a crown from the gutter”  Frankfurt Assembly then dwindles away.  Fred Wm will issue a constitution for Prussia  Parliament will have 2 chambers  Voting power biased toward Junkers vs working class.

20  Italy still not unified.  Pope Pius IX – Papal States  King Charles Albert & Cavour –Piedmont  Mazzini- leader of Young Italy  Pius IX thought to be a reformer- with CA pushed for unification  Threats from Austria & suddenly Pius neutral  Charles Albert suspends army and abdicates in favor of his son Victor Emmanuel II  Meanwhile……

21  Mazzini and Young Italy rise up in Rome  Force Pius IX to leave  Form a Republic led by Mazzini  French troops come to the pope’s rescue and Mazzini surrenders  Ends any unification movements in 1848 And Italy is restored to pre-1848 rulers

22  Metternich has been a powerful prime minister  Rising nationalism by Magyars(Hungarians) creates political instability  Louis Kossuth- promotes Magyar nationalism  Metternich tries policy of divide and conquer- pits anti-Magyar against anti- German Magyars  Uprising in Feb 1848  Liberalism, nationalism, expanding middle class

23  Hungarians(Magyars) want no Austrian control- briefly independent under Kossuth but invaded by Russia and Austria- remain under Austrian control  Meanwhile, students join middle class in revolt-Metternich resigns (goes to Britain)  Hapsburgs crush revolt in Nov 1848  Prince Schwarzenberg- prime minister  Francis Joseph succeeds Ferdinand I but nationalism increases within Austrian minorities. To be continued……..

24  FranceSuccessful!!! (kind of)  ItalyFailure!!!  GermanyFailure!!!  AustriaFailure!! ( but it did get rid of Metternich and the Concert of Europe is no more!!!)

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