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The Skeletal System Chapter 6.

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Presentation on theme: "The Skeletal System Chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Skeletal System Chapter 6

2 Structure and Function of the Skeletal System
Lesson 1

3 Do Now Read I.C.E “Broken Bones” Answer:
1.  List and describe 3 types of fracture. 2. When should fracture be suspected? 3. Describe the 4 steps of bone repair

4 Functions of the Skeleton
Support Protection Produce blood cells in the red marrow All fetal bones have red marrow, only certain adult bones have red marrow Store minerals and fat Ca, P, yellow marrow) Movement

5 Types of Bones Long: longer than wide Short: cube Flat
Irregular: round

6 Long Bones Periosteum Epiphysis: expanded portions at ends of the bone
Continuous with ligaments and tendons Connective tissue covering Protection Blood vessels Epiphysis: expanded portions at ends of the bone Diaphysis: between epiphyses Medullary cavity Inside shaft (diaphysis) Stores yellow marrow (fat) Articular cartilage: hyaline where bones meet at a joint


8 In class assignment Exercise 5.2 worksheet

9 Homework Text pg “Study Questions” # 1-5

10 Bone Composition Lesson 2

11 Do Now Label the Diagram in your notebooks.
Take out homework from last night Take out Worksheet Exercise 5.2

12 Red Bone Marrow Found in long bones Site of hematopoiesis: red
blood cell (RBC) formation Location: Skull Ribs Sternum Vertebrae Ends of long bones

13 Compact/Cortical Bone
Dense, outer surface of the bone Osteocytes: bone cells Canaliculi: bring O2 and nutrients to osteocytes Central canal Contains blood vessels and nerves Connect osteocytes

14 Spongy Bone Cancellous Lighter Compact Strong Can withstand stress

15 Bone Growth Osteoprogenitor: unspecialized cells
Osteoblasts: Build/form bones Osteocytes: mature bone cells Osteoclasts Found in red bone marrow Break down bone to be reabsorbed into the bloodstream

16 Ossification Formation of bone
Intramembranous: bone develops between fibrous connective tissue Ex: skull Endochrondral: cartilage breaks down and lays down spongy bone which thickens and becomes compact Epiphyseal plate band of cartilage between primary and secondary ossification sites Rate of growth is controlled by hormones When the plates close growth stops

17 In class assignment Long bone worksheet

18 Cranium Lesson 3

19 Do Now Chapter 21 Study guide worksheet

20 Axial Appendicular Cranium (head) Vertebrae (spinal column)
Thoracic bones (ribs) Upper limbs Pelvis (hip bone) Lower limbs

21 Cranium Immovable joints 6 bones
1 frontal 2 parietal 1 Occipital 2 temporal Newborns have fontanels which are not fused


23 Frontal: forehead, nose, eyesockets
Parietal: sides of head Occipital: posterior of skull Foramen magnum: hole for spinal cord Occiptal condyle: rounded on sides of foramen magnum Attaches to c1 Temporal: inferior to parietal

24 Temporal External acoustic meatus: ear canal
Mandibular fossa: meets jaw Mastoid process: attaches to neck muscles Styloid process: attaches tongue and larynx Zygomatic process: cheekbone Sphenoid bone: floor of cranium near eyes, butterfly shape Sella turcica: pituitary gland depression Ethmoid bone: anterior to sphenoid, floor of cranium, forms nasal cavity Crista galli: triangle attachment for brain membranes Cribriform plate: holes for nerves and nose sensors Perpendicular plate: forms superior nasal septum Superior middle nasal conchae: increases nasal cavity, attaches nasal mucous membranes

25 In class assignment Labeling diagrams



28 Homework Text pg. 126 “Study Questions” # 6

29 Facial Bones Lesson 4

30 Do Now Video: The Skull

31 Facial Bones 2 Maxillae: upper jaw Vomer bone: 2 Zygomatic bones:
Palantine process: roof of mouth Alveolar process: tooth sockets 2 Zygomatic bones: Cheekbones Zygomatic arch 2 Lacrimal bones: Between the eyes/nose Holes for tear ducts 2 Nasal Bones: Bridge of nose Cartilage Vomer bone: inferior position of nasal septum Joins ethmoid bone and perpendicular plate 2 Inferior nasal conchae: Lateral walls of nasal cavity Mandible: lower jaw/chin Mandibular condyle: attaches to temporal bone Coronoid process: chewing muscle attachment

32 Hyoid Bone Superior to larynx Does not articulate with any other bone
Suspended Anchors tongue and swallowing muscles

33 In class assignment Skull labeling diagrams

34 Homework Test Items worksheet

35 Cranium Quiz Practicum and Written

36 Vertebral Column Lesson 5

37 Do Now Video: The Vertebral Column

38 Vertebral Column 1 curve in the fetus
Cervical curve forms 3-4 months after birth Curves provide support Protects spinal cord Skull to pelvis ~33 bones 7 cervical (neck) C1: atlas C2: axis 12 thoracic (chest) 5 lumbar (low back) 5 fused sacral 3-5 fused coccyx (tailbone)

39 Disorders of the Spine Kyphosis Lordosis Scoliosis
When do these abnormalities occur? Where? What can be don’t to correct?

40 Intervertebral Disks Cartilage disks found between vertebral bones
Prevent grinding Shock absorption Allow flexion/extension/lateral movements

41 Herniated Disk Slip or rupture of the cartilaginous disk
Can press on the spinal nerves and cause pain Treatment: Repair Removal – vertebrae are fused together and provide substantially less range of motion

42 Vertebral Structures Vertebrae are small at the top of the spine
Why? Vertebrae are larger at the bottom of the spine Foramen: hole for the spinal cord to pass from the brain

43 In class assignment Vertebrae Worksheet

44 Homework Complete worksheet

45 Vertebral Column Quiz Written and Practical

46 Thoracic Cavity Lesson 6

47 Do Now Take out and Check Answers to the homework sheet

48 Atlas and Axis 2 special cervical vertebrae C1 and C2
Atlas: supports and balances the head (nodding) Axis: allows shaking of the head (no) Odontoid process connects it to the atlas

49 Rib Cage Protective (heart/lungs) Flexible (breathing)
12 pairs (24 total) Connect to thoracic vertebrae “True ribs”: first 7 pairs which connect to the sternum by costal cartilage “False ribs”: 5 pairs which do not attach to the sternum

50 Sternum Breastbone 3 bones: 1. Manubrium (superior) ribs 1-2
2. Body (Middle/largest) ribs 3-7 3. Xiphoid (inferior/smallest) no ribs - attaches to diaphragm - separates thoracic and abdominal cavities - site for CPR

51 Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral Girdle: 2 clavicles 2 scapulae Upper Limb: 2 humerus 2 radius 2 ulna 14 carpals 28 phalanges Pelvic Girdle: 2 coxal bones Sacrum coccyx Lower Limb: 2 femur 2 tibia 2 fibula 14 tarsals 10 metatarsals

52 In class assignment Thoracic Labeling Diagrams

53 Homework Text pg 126 “Study Questions” # 9

54 Thoracic and Pelvic Girdle Quiz
Written and Practical

55 Upper Limb Lesson 7

56 Do Now Take out Homework From last night
Name the 3 parts of the sternum

57 Clavicle Collarbone Slender “s” shaped
Articulates with manubrium and sternum Weak

58 Scapula Structures Shoulder blades Broad Flexible Not connected Spine
Acromion process: articulates with clavicle Attaches arm and chest muscles Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Articulates with humerus

59 Humerus Distal End Proximal End Capitulum: Head: Trochlea:
Lateral condyle articulates with the radial head Trochlea: Condyle articulates with the ulna Coronoid fossa: Depression for ulna during flexion Olecranon fossa: Depression for ulna during extension Head: Articulates with glenoid cavity of scapula Greater and lesser tubercles: Attach muscles to move the arm and shoulder Intertubercular groove: Holds biceps brachii Deltoid tuberosity: Attaches deltoid

60 Radius Proximal End Distal End Head:
Articulates with capitulum of humerus and ulna Radial tuberosity: Attaches biceps brachii Ulnar notch: Articulates with the head of the ulna Styloid process: Attaches wrist ligaments

61 Ulna Distal End Proximal End Head: Styloid process: Coronoid process:
Articulates with the ulnar notch of the radius Styloid process: Attaches wrist ligaments Proximal End Coronoid process: Articulates with the coronoid fossa of the humerus during flexion Olecranon process: Articulates with the olecranon process of the humerus during extension Trochlear notch: Articulates with the troclear notch of the humerus Radial notch: Articulates with the head of the radius

62 Carpals 8 bones Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Hamate Capitate
Trapezoid Trapezium

63 Metacarpals 5 bones – 1-5 from the thumb Thumb:
1st metacarpal Can touch all fingers Metacarpal heads are visible when the fist is clenches

64 Phalanges Thumb: 4 fingers: 2 bones (proximal, distal)
3 bones (proximal, medial, distal)

65 In class assignment Upper Limb Labeling Diagrams

66 Homework Text pg. 126”Study Questions” # 10 & 11

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