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Mrs. Schenfield 8th Grade Life Science

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Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Schenfield 8th Grade Life Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mrs. Schenfield 8th Grade Life Science
Skeletal System Mrs. Schenfield 8th Grade Life Science

2 5 Functions of the Skeletal System
1. Movement: Skeletal system provides points of attachment for muscles. Your legs and arms move when the muscles pull on the bones. 2. Support: The backbone is the main support center for the upper body. It holds your head up and protects your spinal cord. Muscle attached to bones!!

3 5 Functions of the Skeletal System
3. Protection: The bones of your skull protect your brain. Your ribs protect your lungs and heart from injury. 4. Makes Blood: Red and white blood cells are formed by tissue called marrow, which is in the center of the bone.

4 5 Functions of the Skeletal System
5. Storage: Bones store minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus, for use by the body

5 Two Major Skeletal System Parts
Axial Skeleton: The axial skeleton includes the skull, spine, ribs and sternum. Appendicular Skeleton: The appendicular skeleton includes the appendages of the body, which are the shoulders, arms, hips, and legs.

6 Skeletal System Bones Four basic bone shapes
1. Long- arms, legs and fingers 2. Short- wrist and ankles 3. Flat- skull and sternum 4. Irregular- spine

7 Bone Structure Hyaline cartilage - covers the ends of the bones, stops them rubbing together and absorbs shock. Epiphysis- the ‘head’ of the bone. Cancellous bone - spongy bone that stores the red bone marrow; where blood cells are made.

8 Bone Structure Epiphyseal plate – the area where bones grow in length.
Diaphysis - the shaft. Compact bone – hard, dense bone. It gives strength to the hollow part of the bone.

9 Bone Structure Periosteum – a protective layer where there is no hyaline cartilage. Ligaments and tendons attach to the periosteum. Medullary cavity/marrow cavity - contains the yellow bone marrow; where white blood cells are made.

10 Bones of the Cranium Some are thicker than others!!!

11 Cranium Bones Parietal Bone Parietal Bone Frontal Bone Temporal Bone
Occipital Bone

12 Maxilla and Mandible ? Maxilla Mandible

13 Clavicle or Collarbone
The clavicle, or collar bone, holds the shoulder joint away from the rest of the upper body and is only as thick as your little finger.

14 Scapula The scapula is located on the back side of the ribcage and helps provide part of the shoulder joint and movement for the arms.

15 Vertebral Column or Spinal Cord
1) The cervical region (neck bones)  2) The thoracic region (what the ribs attach to) 3) The lumbar region (the lower part of the back) 

16 Coccyx and Sacrum

17 Humerus (Upper Arm Bone)

18 Radius and Ulna Radius on Top Ulna on Bottom

19 Carpals or (Wrist Bones)

20 Metacarpals (Top of Hands)

21 Phalanges (Little Fingers)

22 Rib Cage

23 Sternum (Breastbone)

24 Pelvis (Dancing Bone)

25 Femur (Largest Bone in the Body)

26 The Tibia and Fibula

27 Tarsals

28 Metatarsals

29 Phalanges

30 Calcaneous

31 Skeletal System Review
My Videos\

32 Joints of the Body Ball and Socket Joint: Round end of bone fitting snuggly within another bone. Ex. Shoulder and Hip

33 Joints of the Body Hinge Joint: Movement at joint in one direction like a door. Ex. Knee and Elbow

34 Joints of the Body Pivot Joint: Bone resting atop another bone permitting free movement. Ex. Neck, Wrist and Ankles

35 Joints of the Body Fixed Immovable: Joint does not move
Ex. Skull Gliding Joint: Bones slipping over other bones with a free flowing movement. Ex. Knuckles

36 The Connectors of the Body
Ligaments: Connect bone to bone

37 The Connectors of the Body!!
Tendon: Attaches muscles to bones

38 The Connectors of the Body
Cartilage: It acts as a cushion between bones at a joint and protects the bones.

39 Problems of the Skeletal System
Fracture: Break Dislocation: Out of joint

40 Types of Fractures Complete fracture-break involving the entire width of the bone Incomplete fracture-only a crack in the bone

41 Types of Fractures Comminuted fracture-bone is broken into several pieces Open fracture-broken bones is open through the skin

42 Problems of the Skeletal System
Sprain: Swelling in the joint Arthritis: Inflamed and stiff joints

43 Problems of the Skeletal System!!
Scoliosis: Curvature of the spine Osteoporosis: Brittle bones


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