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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 5- The Skeletal System Structure of bone Bone Development Axial and appendicular bone Joints- articulations Bone diseases
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Skeletal System: Made of Connective Tissue Bone: hard inorganic matrix of calcium salts Compact: forms shaft and ends, contains marrow space Spongy: trabeculae Cells: osteoblast, osteocytes, osteoclasts Types: long, flat, irregular Osteons/haversian system: cellular arrangement Periosteum: CT covering
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of Bone Figure 5.1
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilage and Ligaments Cartilage Function: support Types: fibrocartilage, hyaline, and elastic cartilage Ligaments Function: attach bone to bone
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone Development Prenatal: cartilage model Fetus: some conversion to bone Childhood: primary and secondary ossification sites formed Adolescence: cartilage growth plate elongates
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone Development (cont.) Figure 5.2
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation—Bone Repair Mature Bone Remodeling and Repair Changes in shape, size, strength Dependent on diet, exercise, age Bone cells regulated by hormones Parathyroid hormone (PTH): removes calcium from bone Calcitonin: adds calcium to bone Repair: hematoma and callus formation PLAY
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of the Skeletal System Protection: encases most internal organs Support: allows body positions Permits movement: muscle attachments for movement Mineral reservoir: calcium and phosphorus
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Skeletal System: Frontal View Figure 5.5 Cranium Maxilla Mandible Clavicle Sternum Ribs Humerus Vertebrae Ulna Radius Coxal bone Sacrum Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Scapula Axial skeletonAppendicular skeleton
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Axial Skeleton: The Skull Figure 5.6 External auditory meatus Occipital bone Temporal boneParietal bone Sphenoid bone Frontal bone Zygomatic bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Maxilla Mandible Occipital bone Maxilla Palatine bone Foramen magnum Vomer bone Sphenoid bone Zygomatic bone
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column Figure 5.7 Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) Sacrum (5 fused) Coccyx (4 fused) Intervertebral disks 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 9 10 11 12 8
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column (cont.) Vertebral column Regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal Intervertebral disks: cushion vertebrae; assist in movement and flexibility Ribs Twelve pairs Bottom two pair floating Sternum: breastbone Three bones fused together
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral girdle: shoulder Clavicle and scapulas Pelvic girdles: hip Coxal bones, sacrum, pubic symphysis Limbs Arms: humerus, radius, ulna, wrist and hand bones Legs: femur, tibia, fibula, ankle and foot bones
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Joints (Articulations) Classified by degree of movement Fibrous joint: immovable (e.g., fontanels) Cartilagenous joint: slightly movable, cartilage connection (e.g., backbone) Synovial joint: freely movable
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints Figure 5.12a
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints (cont.) Joint capsule: synovial membrane + hyaline cartilage Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid as a lubricant Hyaline cartilage acts as a cushion
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System Sprains: stretched or torn ligaments Bursitis and tendinitis: inflammations Arthritis: inflammation of joints
The Skeletal System 4 Lesson 4.1: Bone as a Living Tissue Lesson 4.2: The Axial Skeleton Lesson 4.3: The Appendicular Skeleton Lesson 4.4: Joints Lesson.
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