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Skeletal System Galena Park High School A&P Instructor: Terry E. Jones.

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System Galena Park High School A&P Instructor: Terry E. Jones."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal System Galena Park High School A&P Instructor: Terry E. Jones

2 A. Support 1. Framework that holds the body upright 2. Provides an anchor for soft tissues and organs Galena Park High School A&P I. Function

3 B.Protection 1. Cranial bones protect brain 2. Ribs protect heart and lungs 3. Vertebrae protect the spinal cord Galena Park High School A&P

4 C. Movement 1. Muscles attach to bones 2. Act like levers to allow movement or contraction Galena Park High School A&P

5 D. Storage 1. Stores and releases calcium 2. Stores and releases phosphorus E.Blood Cell Formation 1. Red Blood Cells 2. White Blood Cells Galena Park High School A&P

6 A. Types of Bones 1. Long Bones a. Compact tissue b. Legs, arms Galena Park High School A&P II. Anatomy

7 2. Short Bones a. Spongy, cube shape b. Wrist and ankle bones 3. Flat Bones a. Thin or flat b. Ribs and cranial bones Galena Park High School A&P

8 4. Irregular Bones a. No specific shape b. Hips, and vertebrae Galena Park High School A&P

9 B. Long Bone Structure 1. Diaphysis a. Shaft of the bone b. Contains yellow marrow c. Connective tissue fibers Galena Park High School A&P

10 2. Epiphysis a. Ends of the Bones b. Contains spongy tissue c. Covered with articular cartilage for contact protection with other bones Galena Park High School A&P

11 3. Yellow Bone Marrow a. Stores fat or adipose tissue b. The cavity of the diaphysis c. In babies, it makes blood cells Galena Park High School A&P

12 4. Red Bone Marrow a. Found in the spongy area of the epiphyses in adults b. Also found in flat bones of ribs c. Produces as many as 500 billion blood cells a day Galena Park High School A&P

13 C. Growth and Development 1. Ossification-making bones a. Embryos are mostly cartilage b. Young children have cartilage replaced by bone c. A young bone is cartilage covered with a bone matrix Galena Park High School A&P

14 d. As the child grows, the cartilage is replaced with bone tissue e. The medullary cavity is formed f. By birth all cartilage has been replaced except on ends Galena Park High School A&P

15 g. Bones grow longer at the epiphyseal plate h. Osteoblasts build bone tissue. i. Osteoclasts break down bone to release calcium when the body needs it j. New skeleton about every 10 years Galena Park High School A&P

16 A.Rickets 1. Bone does not calcify 2. Caused by a lack of calcium and Vitamin D in the diet 3. Causes bones to bend Galena Park High School A&P III. Homeostasis

17 B. Fractures 1. Commuted Fracture a. Breaks into many piece b. Old brittle bones 2. Compressed Fracture a. Bone is crushed b. Common in porous bone Galena Park High School A&P

18 3. Depressed Fracture a. Bone forced inward b. Skull fractures 4. Impacted Fracture a. Broken bones forced into each other b. Caused by trying to stop a fall Galena Park High School A&P

19 5. Spiral Fracture a. Caused by a twisting motion b. Typical in sports fractures 4. Greenstick Fracture a. Bone is completely broken b. Broken ends often protrude through the skin Galena Park High School A&P

20 A. Common Bones 1. Skull 2. Vertebrae 3. Bony thorax – rib cage Galena Park High School A&P IV. Axial Skeleton

21 B. Cranium- Eight Bones 1. Frontal (1) - Forehead 2. Parietal (2) - Side and Top of skull 3. Temporal (2)- Side bottom 4. Occipital (1) – Back of skull 5. Sphenoid (1) – sides of head and orbits of eyes 6. Ethmoid (1) – Side of nose, part of eye orbit Galena Park High School A&P

22 C. Facial Bones – 14 Bones 1. Maxillae (2) – upper jaw under nose 2. Palantine (2) – Posterior roof of mouth 3. Zygomatic (2)- Cheek Bone 4. Lacrimal (2) – Part of orbits, thumbnail size 5. Nasal(2) – Sides of nose Galena Park High School A&P

23 6. Vomer (1) – Septum of the nose 7. Mandible (1) – Lower Jaw Bone 8. Conchae (2) – Nasal bones, attached to ethmoid bones Galena Park High School A&P

24 C. Hyoid Bone (1) 1. Only bone not articulated with another bone D.Fetal Skull 1. Not fully formed when born 2. Has soft spots- fontanels 3. Allows skull to distort for birth because humans have big heads Galena Park High School A&P

25 D. Vertebral Column. 26 Bones 1. Cervical Vertebrae (7) Neck 2. Thoracic Vertebra (12) Chest 3. Lumbar(5)- Lower Back 4. Sacrum (1) – 5 fused vertebrae 5. coccyx(2) – 4 fused vertebrae Galena Park High School A&P

26 6. Flexible column 7. Protects the spinal cord 8. Transfers weight of upper body to lower limbs vertebrae Galena Park High School A&P

27 E. Bony Thorax - 25 Bones 1. Ribs (24) Chest, rib cage 2. Sternum (1) – Breast bone 3. Protects the heart, lungs,liver and stomach Galena Park High School A&P

28 A. Common Bones -126 Bones 1. Arms and Legs 2. Pelvic Girdle 3. Pectoral Girdle Galena Park High School A&P V. Appendicular Skeleton

29 B. Pectoral Girdle 1. Clavicle (2) Collar bone 2. Scapula (2) Shoulder blade 3. Scapula has the socket for the upper arm to fit in. Galena Park High School A&P

30 C. Upper Limbs 1. Humerus (2) – upper Arm 2. Radius (2) – Forearm, allows twisting 3. Ulna(2) – Forearm next to radius Galena Park High School A&P

31 D. Hands 1. Carpals (8) – Each Wrist 2. Metacarpals (5) – Each hand 3. Phalanges (14) –Fingers of each hand One hand has 27 bones. Both hands have 54 bones total. Galena Park High School A&P

32 E. Pelvic Girdle - Hips 1. Coxal Bones (2) 2. The girdle also includes the sacrum and coccyx from the axial bones F.Upper Leg 1. Femur (2) – Thigh bone 2. Has round end that fits the girdle socket Galena Park High School A&P

33 4. Fibula (2) Bones – shin Bone 5. Tibia (2) Smaller Bone 6. Patella (2) Knee Caps G.Feet 1. Tarsals (7) – Each Ankle 2. Metatarsals (5) Each Foot 3. Phalanges (14) – Toes Both feet have a total of 56 bones Galena Park High School A&P

34 A. Basics 1. Location where two or more bones articulate 2. Articulated areas covered with cartilage 3. Allow muscle to move bones. Galena Park High School A&P VI. Joints

35 B. Fibrous joints 1. Connected by tissue 2. Bones of the skull – suture lines C.Cartilagenous Joints 1. Joints connected by cartilage 2. Cartilage discs between vertebrae Galena Park High School A&P

36 D. Synovial Joints 1. Joint enclosed by fluid cavity 2. Reinforced by ligaments E. Types of synovial Joints 1. Plane joint a. gliding motion, no pivot around an axis b. Joints in the wrist Galena Park High School A&P

37 F. Hinge Joints 1. Round bone fits in a trough 2. Moves on one plane only 3. Elbow G. Pivot Joints 1. One bone fits in ring of another bone 2. Pivot between radius and ulna Galena Park High School A&P

38 H. Condyloid Joints 1. Ends of both bones are oval 2. Moves back and forth and side to side 3. Knuckles on the hands I. Saddle Joints 1. Similar to Condyloid 2. Thumbs Galena Park High School A&P

39 J. Ball and Socket Joints 1. Round end of one bone fits into a socket on another 2. Femur and hip 3. Humerus and Shoulder Galena Park High School A&P


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