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©Subject Support 2010.
Hairs: Filter Dust, Pollen and Foreign bodies Air is warmed and moistened Cilia transport foreign particles to the Pharynx
©Subject Support 2010. EPIGLOTTIS : Flap of cartilage at the back of the tongue Closes when swallowing to direct food to the stomach PHARYNX: Tube in the Throat
©Subject Support 2010. LARYNX: Voice Box. Contains Vocal Chords Connects Pharynx to Trachea TRACHEA: Windpipe Rings of cartilage stop it from collapsing Branches into Bronchi
©Subject Support 2010. Bronchus: Carry air into lungs Branches into Lobar Bronchi Bronchial Network = Bronchial Tree Bronchioles: Small airways 1mm Diameter End in Air Sacs
©Subject Support 2010. Left Lung is smaller than the right Right Lung has 3 lobes Left Lung has 2 lobes Pleural Membrane: Pleura surround the lungs Cavity within lubricates pleural surfaces preventing friction
©Subject Support 2010. Visceral Pleura – Inner Pleural membrane Covers the lung surface Pleural Fluid Produced by the membrane Lubricating Fluid
©Subject Support 2010. 300 million gas-filled air sacs in each lung Huge area for GASEOUS EXCHANGE Capillaries surround the alveoli O 2 into blood CO 2 into alveoli
©Subject Support 2010. Divides the Chest and Abdomen Breathing muscle Contraction Increases chest cavity Relaxation decreases
©Subject Support 2010. Internal and External INTERNAL – Inside Ribcage Move ribs DOWN + IN EXTERNAL – Outside Ribcage MOVE ribs UP + OUT
©Subject Support 2010. Gaseous Exchange Breathing Lung Volumes Control of breathing
©Subject Support 2010. Diffusion between air(alveoli) – blood(capillaries) Partial Pressure – Gases in contact with liquid diffuse into a solution
©Subject Support 2010. Blood entering the capillaries – Low O 2 Content / High CO 2 Content O 2 Diffuses into the blood CO 2 Diffuses into the Alveoli
©Subject Support 2010. Intercostal muscles contract Ribs lifted UP+OUT Diaphragm forced down Pressure drops Air floods into the lungs
©Subject Support 2010. Intercostal muscles relax Ribs fall DOWN+IN Diaphragm RELAXES Pressure increases Air floods out of the lungs
©Subject Support 2010. Respiratory Rate = Amount of air breathed in 1 Minute. Tidal Volume = Amount of air breathed in/out in one breath Increases during exercise
©Subject Support 2010. Inspiratory Reserve Volume = Breathing in deeply. Over and above tidal volume Expiratory Reserve Volume = Breathing out forcefully.
©Subject Support 2010. Vital Capacity = Maximum Inspiration followed by Maximal Expiration Residual Volume = Lungs never fully empty – Prevents collapse Total Lung Capacity = Vital Capacity + Residual Volume
©Subject Support 2010. NEURAL CONTROL Controlled from the Medulla in the brain Send impulses to Neurones CHEMICAL CONTROL Chemoreceptors sense changes in Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Located in Aorta and Carotid Arteries
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