2 The Respiratory System Air enters the respiratory system through both the nasal cavity and mouth.The nasal cavity is lined with tiny hairs and mucus to trap foreign particles.The air is warmed and moistened.
4 The Respiratory System Pharynx – where the nasal cavity and oral cavity meetEpiglottis – flap that closes over the top of the trachea(glottis) due to reflexive action while eatingTrachea – the windpipe through which air passesSupported by cartilage rings
5 The Respiratory System Larynx – voicebox located in the trachea containing vocal cords. The vocal cords vibrate producing sounds.Adam’s Apple – thick band of cartilage protecting larynx.
6 The Respiratory System Bronchi – extend from the trachea also contains cartilageBronchioles – the smallest passageways of the respiratory tractAlveoli – tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs between the air and the blood
7 Alveoli Each lung is made up of 150 million alveoli. Capillaries surround each cluster of alveoli and ensuregas diffusion between the air and blood occurs.Oxygen moves from the air inside the lungs to the alveoli while carbon dioxide moves from the alveoli into the air inside the lungs.Lipoprotein prevents alveoli from sticking together
8 Goblet cellsGoblet cells – mucus secreting cells lining the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles to trap foreign particles.Cilia - hair like structures that sweep the foreign particles up towards the mouth
9 Thoracic CavityExternal intercostal muscles – muscles between the ribs that raise the rib cage, increasing volume and reducing air pressure in chest.Diaphragm – muscle that separates organs of the chest from abdominal cavity.
10 Pleural membrane – thin fluid-filled membrane surrounding lungs and inner wall of chest cavity that reduces friction during inhalation.
11 The Movement of AirAir moves from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.Air will move into the lungs when the air pressure inside the lungs is less than the air pressure outside the body.Air will move out of the lungs when the air pressure inside the lungs is______ than the air pressure outside the body.
12 Inspiration (Inhaling) The diaphragm contracts and moves downExternal intercostal muscles expand rib cage upward and outwardVolume of thoracic cavity increases therefore air pressure decreases.Movement of air into the lungs.
13 Expiration (Exhaling) The diaphragm relaxes and moves upExternal intercostal muscles move rib cage inward and downward.Volume of thoracic cavity decreases therefore air pressure increases.Movement of air out of the lungs.